It is named after the battle of Trafalgar of 1805, where Horatio Nelson defeated a Spanish-French fleet of Napoleon. At this naval combat came Admiral Nelson killed. He is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. By the victory over Napoleon could the United Kingdom establish its dominion over the seas for many years.
On the middle of the square is Nelson's Column. This column is about 50 feet high while the image of Nelson itself but 5.5 meters high. At the bottom of the Column are four bronze reliefs confirmed. Admiral Nelson's naval battles from four of these images. Nelson's Column is surrounded by four bronze lions designed by Edwin Landseer and posted by Marocchetti. The Lions were completed in 1868. The square itself was completed in 1840.
Also on the square, North of Nelson's Column, there are two fountains. They were designed by Edwin Lutyens in the period 1937-1939, replacing two older fountains, which are now located in Canada. The fountains are monuments in honor of the admirals John Jellicoe (west) and David Beatty (East).
Also located there is the Church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields and the world-famous museum National Gallery. To the South one leaves the square via Whitehall; in western direction through The Mall to Buckingham Palace. Also a number of embassies, including the South African, are located on Trafalgar Square.
In the corners of the square are four plinths for statues (plinths). They carry the images of George IV, Henry Havelock and Charles James Napier. The fourth plinth (fourth plinth) is for financial reasons has remained empty since 1999 and is used for art demonstrations.