Sailing is a technique of propellant by wind force on a sailing ship, sailing boat or surf board over the water, with a Yachting over land or over the ice with an ice yacht . This function uses the force of the wind that arises because the sail changes the speed and direction of the incoming wind. History has a slow, but constant development of sail and hull shape: plump's ships, shown with square sails that were hanging at the bottom of a ra conducted (the dwarsgetuigde ship), to ships with a sleek hull and deep stabbing kiel where the sails taut at the front, especially behind a mast or to cables of the mast to the bow: the langsgetuigde ship. In general, more modern ships better upwind ("higher on the wind") could sail. The hull shape and the type of rigging, however, were especially on commercial land determined; even in times where a more modern rigging was available, were therefore still square testified ships were built. A price which is in the blind spot , more or less against the wind, can not be bezeild.
- 2 Sailing terminology
- 3 use of sailing ships
- 4 see also
- 5 external links
The free flow of wind is slowed and deflected by a sail. As a result, there is a pressure difference between the on-the-side of the sail close-hauled and the rogue wind side.
As a sailing ship with the wind direction with speed, the benefit from a sphere cut sail, that is capable of effectively approaching wind to slow down, so that the flow is present in the wind energy to good use.
As a sailing ship another course, especially when it cant want to make progress against the wind, is a tighter sailing more effective. The wind than obliquely in the sail (see illustration). Any bulging of the sail at the rear would restrict, because it is an obstacle to the outgoing air.The power of wind on the sail can be composed from a forward power and a force that the boat sideways forces out.
The tilted forward-facing a forward force can be thought out sailing compiled component and a sideways. The sideways component should be prevented by any sideways area under water. The forward force drives the ship. The hull is for the sail behavior as important as the effectiveness of the sail. Sideways drifting away (drift, verlijeren) is countered by the centerboard or Keel, Lee boards, or sometimes because the hull has a deep stabbing sharp V-shape. Minimum forward resistance is achieved by the hull shape as slim as possible. Because the said facilities often conflict with the internal living space, the payload, the water area, where shoals a deep stabbing kiel and sometimes also with a favourable behavior in waves, the hull design is always a compromise.
Simplified view of the State of sail (s) and hull compared to wind and water and the functioning of the force that generates wind, at a number of rates from the ship in relation to the incoming wind: 1. for the wind, 2. half wind (wind from the side), 3. to the wind (diagonally from the front), 4. and 5.: high in the wind, 6. in the wind (the wind comes from the front). If a target located upwind in such a way that it is not in bezeild can be once, then tacking a solution: 4 and 5.===Some concepts and effects that with sailing related[Edit]===
- Sailing point (Z in the illustrations) is the entry point of the resultant of the pressure forces on the sail. For an understanding of the forces that work, can be placed on a ship like the total force caused by the wind on the sail or sailing, engages in the sailing point; the direction of that force is more or less perpendicular to the sail.
- Laterally Point. This is the entry point of the forces of the water that soak on the ship sideways; It is the underwater equivalent of the sailing point.
- Apparent wind. Once a sailing boat speed makes, changes the relative air speed relative to the boat. At a for-the-close-hauled course, where the wind is coming from behind, the resulting wind speed that the boat "feels", equal to the difference between wind and boat speed. If the boat would sail against the wind right, is the apparent wind speed is equal to the sum of boat speed and wind speed. At other races, the speed of ship and wind vector added to the apparent wind direction and speed determine. A wind vane at the top of the mast indicates the apparent wind direction.
- The effect of water flow. This will affect the speed of the boat and so also to the apparent wind. In particular rivers the water speed quite vary with the place where one speed.
- Send Behavior. Because there will be a horizontal distance under different circumstances between the sailing point and the lateral point, works there is a torqueon the ship, which therefore tends to luffing (rotate the header to the wind) or lose weight (turn the head of the wind). The arm of this torque depends on the sailing lining, of the slope and the rate of the ship relative to the water. He is maximum at about half wind and at least if the wind approximately parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship falls into it.
- Hull Speed. A moving hull makes waves. If the ship so fast that there is precisely one golf next to the hull resistance arises, the disproportionate and will further increase the speed of proportion more energy costs; the ship would then constantly working are against its own bow wave on climbing. The maximum speed, taking into account this effect, is called hull speed. In practice, the waves also a large influence on the speed of the ship. Wind on water always causes waves and must be taken into account with the sailing there. When directly against the waves in "beech", the boat still and it is often more efficient to choose a wider rate less against the waves, but has a longer distance runs. Due to the higher speed is often offset this extra distance. As soon as the wavelength is longer the ship has more time to move along with the waves and the resistance is much less. 
- On sharp sailing. When sailing upwind, it is the send art to a possible course so sharp there, however there should be as little as possible. However, there is a sharp course reduced the speed, certainly for a large wave power. The send art is a good compromise between speed and competitive rate. At a harder wind can be a sharper rate dangers, but there is usually more waves. With the sloop rigging can in principle be the sharpest dangers. However, this is also dependent on the wind resistance on the ship, caused by the masts, ropes, cabins and other objects that cause air resistance. In addition, the effectiveness of the keel/sword/hull to prevent the drifting sideways a large role. It must also hull as smooth as possible (no algae and shells growth) in order to reduce the resistance in the course. The extent that a ship can sail sharp is a measure of how well a ship can sail and a point of honor for each SA with a sailing heart.
- Planing. If the hull shape allows, can the restraining effect of the hull speed be avoided, because the hull more about water slides, than that he forces through it. In particular, ships of which the bottom of the hull somewhat flat, are relatively easy to bring up to planing.
- Angle Of Inclination. The wind seizes to above the water level, causing a torque arises that the ship does hellen. The arm of that torque is the distance between the sailing point and the lateral point. There is a counter time for two reasons. The hull comes to lie in the water, making asymmetrical on the low side the upward force of the water increases. This effect is enhanced in that ballast, which is often low, or down a sailing boat is made, more comes to lie sideways. See also the article Ship stability. The incline also plays a role in the handling of the ship. If the ship tilts, the effective sail area af, as well as the efficiency of the sail. This also applies to the underwater hull. The length increases than waterlijn somewhat, which will result in an increase in the hull speed. It will also change the operation of the rudder because the effective rudder surface reduces and the flow pattern around the rudder changes. Sometimes are therefore two stirring applied, on the left and on the right side of the mirror. For catamarans sail under the effect of slope is much less. Enkelrompsschepen by decreasing time of the force on the sail and the increasing founding moment of the ballast a "built-in" safety against overload: in case of inclined ship takes the inclined torque and the righting moment far. Although catamarans offer a great resistance against large cross-wind, will greatly decrease the righting torque at larger slope suddenly; the catamaran can then suddenly capsize.
On the ship works the momentkenterend wind force Fz and the water resistance Fl and pointing momentcaused by the stability of the ship. Fr is the upward force of the underwater hull, Fbdisplacement weight.===Rate Changes[Edit]===
Because a sailing ship not always in the same direction, changes its course.
Each course requires its own optimal State of the sails, so that the State of the sails needs to be adapted at a change of course.
In the world of sail are all terms used to make things that are important to be able to appoint for the safe sailing. See also the article shipping from A to Z.
- to the wind
- in the wind
- blind spot
- half wind
- spacious wind
- for the wind
- Lee shore
These terms are also used in windsurfing .
Rigging is the collective name for all sailing, portrait (fixed) and running (movable) because, the ropes and spars needed to propel a ship and to anchora ship. Hoists on board for the handling of cargo as well as the sloops also belong to the rigging. To the rigging include:
Both recreational and competitive is sailed around the world. In certain areas, the sail still a commercial function. This concerns in particular regions of the third world, where the use of gasoline engines for financial reasons not possible. Motor Transport has almost completely supplanted the professional carrying on these sailing. Sailing ships are relatively slow and ask especially more traditional craftsmanship, that with the years in developed countries is scarcer. For the present time is to sail a lot depending on the weather conditions, which makes the travel plans of more difficult.
In Netherlands is in many places use the omnipresent water for sailing. Wherever a larger water surface, you can find sailing ships. The small boats on the edge and on the smaller lakes, the large ships on sea, on the IJsselmeer and in the Zeeland waters or on the Frisian Lakes.
Boats are available in many sizes, from the smallest pirate jolletjes and sailing canoes, suitable for one person, not too heavy to the large sailing ships like the Oosterschelde or the City of Amsterdam.
Sailing is very well possible from an early age, one can learn to sail on a sailing camp or on a Lake nearby. In addition, one can continue sailing to advanced age. Small "boats" are already available from a few hundred euros.
There is also pressure to scale sailed with models that are equipped with radio control. And just as with the large sailing boats is also the subdivision in recreational sailing and sailing as competitive sport.
A sailing competition is usually called a regatta .
The largest games in the sport of sailing are the Volvo Ocean Race (formerly the Whitbread Round The World Race) and the America's Cup. And for solo sailors, the Vendée Globeis the only non-stop around the world. Little sister is the MiniTransat. These contests are extremely spectacular and be in great sailing boats dangers.
A whole different caliber is the Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Find classes In a number of Olympic competitions there as well.
There are also classes in various competitions at regional and/or national level.
Particular the botter matches spakenburg. Weekly State the Eemmeer in spakenburg in the sign of the Tuesday evening round and Flat-bottomed League (DARP) and each year takes place here the Zuidwal place.Botters are traditional fishing boats, which used to be the Zuiderzee.
Also known are the matches in Friesland with skûtsjes, traditional cargo boats from the beginning of the 20th century. The Skûtsjesilen is always in the first week of the construction workers holiday held.
A famous sailing race in Netherlands is also the round Texel race, a contest to the island of Texel. It is the largest open catamaran-event in the world, with 500 to 700 participating boats. Another Dutch yacht race is the Baker race on the Markermeer.
The largest Dutch solo sailing race is the 200 Myls Solo sailing race sailing race, for which every year over 300 registrations are. Of these 300 sailors are there but 80 admitted to the race.
The first ever trans-Atlantic solo yacht race, the OSTAR (Original single-handed Trans-Atlantic Race). In 1960, the first organized OSTAR, which five participants counted. All five made it to the finish line in America.The race is now still known as the second toughest solo yacht race in the world. The race is organized every four years by the RWYC in England. The last edition was held in 2009, with the Dutchman Jan Kees Lampe the "line honours" won and finished third in the IRC 3 class.
There are different forms of regatta sailing:
Events International examples include:
- Heineken Regatta Zeilwestrijd around the island of St. maarten in the Caribbean
- Olympic Games
- Volvo Ocean Race (formerly Whitbread Race Around the World)
- Vendée Globe
- Tall Ships ' Race (formerly Cutty Sark Race)
- OSTAR (Original single-handed Trans-Atlantic Race)
- Vintage Yachting Games
- Race of the Classics or Rees, the largest sailing race for non-professionals (most students) on classic ships in Europe, fully organised by students
- 200 Myls ' SOLO ' sailing race
- 24-hour sailing race
- North Sea Regatta
- Round Texel
- Battle in the round
- Sneek week
- Holland Regatta
- Three Quarters Of The race
- Dutch Students Championship
- Zuidwal (the largest sailing event in flat-bottomed boats for round-Netherlands)
- Koster to Chaplain (contest on the IJsselmeer for round and flat bottoms)