Rugby Union Football, short rugby, a sport which has arisen at the Rugby School in England . According to legend, picked up a young gentleman in a school football match ball (an inflated pig's bladder encased in leather) with his hands and went thereby running towards the opponent's goal. This player, William Webb Ellis , is still today regarded as the founder and inventor of the ball game. Originally it was called in England rugby Rugby Football. Over the years, the rules have changed significantly and are still almost every year adjusted for the sport especially safe and attractive. Rugby is one of the most famous field sports in the world. A match is played by two teams of 15 people and lasts 2 x 40 minutes. During the match, the players try to print an oval ball over the tryline known opponent or between kicking the posts to score points. Players may wear or kicking the ball. Playing with the hands to a teammate (fit) may only backward.
In 1886 , the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was established, the name was changed in 1997 to International Rugby Board (IRB) . The organization is based inDublin . The IRB determines the rules (in the rugby world 'laws') and organizes world championships (since 1987). Since 1995 the sport professionally. This was no question of payment. The players had to pay their own cup of coffee after the contest, beer was free. This attitude of the unions belong to the richest rugby unions federations in the world. It is sometimes said that the miners' strike early 70s in Wales was sponsored by the WRU.
Besides Rugby Union there is also the variant Rugby League . The two sports in 1895 broke up after a dispute over payments. Rugby League was at the professional rugby variant with 13 instead of 15 players. Nowadays both variants are played professionally. In Rugby League expired especially the tackles completely different because the fight to stop the ball after a player with the ball is tackled. This results in a different game pattern. In the Netherlands or Belgium, you will almost never see a match Rugby League.
- 1 Rules
- 1.1 Playfield
- 1.2 Ball
- 1.3 Tackle
- 1.4 Ruck
- 1.5 Maul
- 1.6 Scrum
- 1.7 Line-out
- 1.8 Scoring
- 2 Positions of players
- 3 International
- 4 Mentality
- 5 Students Rugby
- 6 External links
The Laws of Rugby Union established by the IRB.
Diagram of a rugby playing field with tag lines and dimensions.
The posts on the goal line. Behind the goal line is the goal line. The area between these two lines is the target area. In the target area a try can be printed. For the goal line is the defending up to the 22-yard line. In which defense zone is 5 meters from the goal line by a dashed line. Set pieces may not take place between this line and the goal line. They are placed back to the 5-yard line. Between the 22-yard line and the center line is the interrupted 10-meter line. This is 10 meters from the center line. This 10-meter line must be passed at kickoff. Furthermore, this line has no meaning.
In addition, there are lines also run in the longitudinal direction of the field. To begin the sidelines. 5 meters in addition there are broken lines and 15 meters from the touchline another. These are the lines between the players must be accommodating a line-out.
[Ball edit ] Edit
A rugby ball as used in rugby union.
Typical modern American football ball. This is not used in rugby.
In rugby uses an oval ball as shown here. That's a different ball than the ball of American football. The ball of American football is a little shorter and more pointed, traditional brown and has the characteristic white, slightly protruding laces. This American ball is NOT used for rugby.
[Tackle edit ] Edit
A player in possession of the ball (the ball carrier) may be tackled by an opponent. Players other than the ball carrier may not be hindered (obstruction). Also stand in the way of a challenge can be punished (crossing).
A tackle is made using from bringing to the floor of the opponents of arms (and hands). Thereto, may not be hit head or neck (high tackle). A player is considered tackled as a knee or above the body hits the ground. The ball carrier must make immediate preparations to release the ball. Can not be punished deliver on time (holding the ball). The tackler must immediately make the tackled player getting ready to give the space to give up the ball. Provide early space can be punished (not releasing).
After a challenge creates two offside lines. On the outer body side border of the opponent and the ultimate limit to the body's own side. The players have to position themselves on their own side on either side of these lines. The only course open to the side of the opponent is on the tackled player back from their own side. The boundary of this passage is formed by the body limits of the players involved in the tackle. Income can be sanctioned from the side (coming in from the side).
A ball carrier has the right after a tackle to make one move before the ball issue. The player can use this to win as terrain or even try to score.
[Ruck edit ] Edit
After the tackle the battle for the ball continues. Above the players on the ground usually forms a ruck . The best translation of this is perhaps "the mob." The crowd that follows the tackle. Both sides will be a mob (standing) players challenge each other space. However, it is not intended to dive to the tackled players.Who goes to the ground when income can be sanctioned (off feet).
What emerges is reminiscent of a scrum. It is also called a loose scrum. Players are contesting the position above the ball by pushing against each other. Just like a scrum applies here: shoulders above the hips to keep it safe.
Because the tackled player has one move, this usually brings the ball to his own side. As a result, it is usually easier for his associates to protect the ball. In most cases the ball on the side of the ball carrier out of the ruck. Which could lead to a new attack again.
All players involved in a ruck must bind to the ruck. That bind consists simply of physical contact. The offside lines of the tackle to be further expanded by the ruck.Again, the physical limits of all those involved in the ruck determine the lines, front and rear, left and right. Anyone who is not tied to the ruck must therefore behind the foot of his teammate in the ruck drawing. Not tied players must observe the offside line. Can not be punished timely bind (off side).
In a ruck none of the players in the ruck allowed to touch the ball with his hand (hands in the ruck). One should bring back the ball with the feet, so the party is no longer possible. This is called rucking the ball. The ball will be so to the back of the ruck. Since the ball can be picked up by a free player, usually the scrum half.Only when the scrum half holds the ball, the ruck is over.
Maul [ edit ] Edit
If a ball carrier is attacked, but all the others who make physical contact with the ball carrier is not brought to the ground, then a maul. That word can perhaps best be translated with sledgehammer.
Just like a tackle arise offside lines front and rear and left and right of the maul. Allies must stay bound together to hear the maul. Players may only push from their own side.The team in possession tries to bring the ball usually to the hindmost team mate in the maul. If the maul stops and the ball does not come quickly enough, the game is restarted with a scrum. Deliberately collapsing a maul is a serious offense (collapsing the maul).
[Scrum edit ] Edit
A scrum (short for scrummage) is a set piece that often occurs during a match. The referee gives a scrum when play resumed after minor, technical violations, such as when a player drops the ball or the ball became unplayable forward.
The scrum may be seen as an ordered ruck. In principle, the team throwing in has the best opportunity to launch a new attack.
In a scrum put eight players from each team in a fixed formation facing each other and try to push through possession. The ball is placed in the scrum by the scrum half.Players may only push the shoulders above the hips. It is not allowed to press a scrum to the ground. This is seen as an offense (collapsing the scrum). After the ball into the scrum is inserted, the hooker trying to work the ball with the heel of his shoe back. The throw must be carried out perpendicular to the scrum. It is not allowed to throw the ball diagonally into the scrum to their own party (feeding). If the ball at the back of the scrum comes out, will usually pick the scrum half the ball again and the game continues.
Line-out [ edit ] Edit
A line-out is given when the ball has crossed the touchline. The place where the line-out is given, however, is not necessarily the location where the ball crossed the line.
In the first place, the ball out, or better in touch when the ball hits the ground, either directly, or through a player. A jumping player out of bounds, the ball may therefore throw back into the field as long as it imposes the ground but does not touch the ball in the hands. On the other hand, a player with the ball in hand within the lines, which touches the ground with one foot off the field, the ball has thus made in touch.
Furthermore, it is not just possible to book gains from outside their own 22-meter area to kick directly the air. A kick direct the air from their own 22-meter area just leads to a line-out at the place where the ball went into touch. Outside its own 22-meter range, this leads to a line-out at the level of the location of the kick.
But the ball is kicked indirectly the air, then simply applies the place of passing the sidelines as the location of the line-out. Indirect means that the ball hit the ground first (or anything else) before going into touch.
When a lineout players of both teams set themselves up in two rows perpendicular to the sidelines with 1 m spacing. Each team is free to decide how many players in the line-out stand. A player (usually the hooker) throws the ball between the two rows by cross on the sidelines. Players in the row may be lifted to catch the ball or play to a teammate.important that this is done safely. A player with the ball can not be attacked as long as it is not on the ground.
Scoring [ edit ] Edit
In rugby players in different ways to score points:
- Kicking the ball between the vertical posts and above the crossbar in the defense area of the opponent. This constitutes the referee awarded a penalty after a foul. But it also allowed from an open-play situation. However, the kick must be taken as a drop kick. This test will be assigned 3 points.
- The ball over the tryline opponent pressures (a try ). This score gives 5 points. The referee may award a penalty-try after defending violations.
- After scoring a try, a player may try to add an additional score by taking a so-called conversion kick . The conversion kick may be taken sometime in a straight line along the length of the field relative to the location of the try. If this conversion is hit, it is worth 2 points.
[Positions of the players edit ] Edit
The fifteen players in a rugby team can be divided into two categories. The players with number 1/8 are the voorwaartsen, or the 'Pack', players with number 9 t / m 15, the driekwarters, also known as the 'backs'. We also have a further subdivision of the pack and the backs. For example, in the pack, the first row, two props in the middle with a hooker, together with the second row, where the two locks are called the front five. The numbers 6/8 of the pack together form the 'back row', or third row. A team may have up to seven substitutes.
The voorwaartsen are important in the game which parts proportioned strength and technique is needed, for example in the scrums, rucks and mauls the. These players in the first row are often heavier and stronger than the backs. Most first row harvesters, especially props thus sacrificing speed, but there are hookers that in terms of speed and skill with the ball in hand not for driekwarters inferior. Second row harvesters, the locks, ensure the ball from the line-outs and for the "lock" of the scrum. Usually these players are more than 1.95 m and outside it their length accompanied by the necessary leap from strength to rise above their opponents. The third row harvesters are connecting players of the team both in the establishment and continuation of attacks, as well as the breakdown of attacking the opponent must provide balbehoud and / or new possession.
The contribution of the backs, speed and technique. They are expected with rapid combinations to play the defense out of position. They also form the first defense block, stop attacking players of the opposing team until the moment the third row harvesters can interfere with it to secure possession. The scrum-half and fly-half, the game distributors and are collectively called the half-backs.
The positions of the players are usually referred to in English.
|Rugby union positions|
International [ edit ] Edit
The major international tournament is the Rugby World Cup , which is held every four years. The current world champion is New Zealand , in 2011 the Webb Ellis Cup managed to conquer by France to defeat in the final. In size and public interest does the tournament but for few events under, but it inferior to the Olympics and the World Cup . The Dutch football team doing since 1989 participated in the qualifiers for this event.Hardly the final rounds of 1991 and 1995 were missed. The Dutch selections in those years could compete with the European second rank, such as Romania and Italy. Also were regularly top teams from France, England and Wales surprised by Dutch Five Ten. Since 1995 Rugby Union is also practicing as a professional and the differences between countries with a professional core and a paid competition format and the 'smaller' countries have become unbridgeable.
In the Northern Hemisphere has been around since the eighties of the nineteenth century, an annual competition between the strongest rugby nations of Europe. Once started as a four-Nation, between England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland, was admitted at the beginning of the twentieth century France and was there from 1910 there is a five-Nation. However, beginning in 1931, France was excluded because the organization in England suspected there were paid players in France. In 1939, the feud was resolved, as France once again participate in this tournament. Italy is admitted in 2000 to the prestigious tournament and is now the annual Six Nations held. The participating teams are England , Wales , France , Italy , Ireland and Scotland . It is remarkable that Ireland internationally as a true combination of Ireland and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). It is therefore played a separate national anthem, Ireland's Call .
Smaller European rugby countries, including Belgium and Netherlands , playing under the flag of the European Rugby Association FIRA-AER the European Nations Cup .
In the Southern Hemisphere is called the counterpart of the European Six Nations The Rugby Championship . The participants are Australia , New Zealand , South Africa and Argentina .
[Mentality edit ] Edit
Although it's on the field sometimes hard to be done, rugby players have a mutual code of honor that is based on respect. After a contest to thank the teams through to the opponent to form a erepoortje. Then always follow the "third half" in which the atmosphere is called matey. During a match it as undesirable that the decisions of the referee are criticized by players. The only one of whom is tolerated is the team captain.In rugby, the referees may at open criticism give a penalty by the offending party to deprive the ball ten yards to let go back to the site. Repeated criticism of the game, players can lead to (temporarily) be sent off.
Students Rugby [ edit ] Edit
In the Netherlands the rugby always had an unofficial separation between the student sports and civil sport. This difference was primarily from the international nature of rugby so the students by international fellow in earlier stage came in contact with the international sport. It is no coincidence that the Eindhoven, Groningen and Leiden students formed the foundation of rugby in the Netherlands. This international influences sport has found its base in the Netherlands. That in recent years non-student teams champion could be like rugby club Hilversum means that rugby her student status may outgrow.
- International Rugby Board (IRB)
- FIRA - Association Européenne de Rugby (FIRA-AER)
- Dutch Rugby Board (NRB)
- Belgian Rugby Union
- Rugby Union at the BBC