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Red Dwarf is a British science fiction-comedy, created and written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. The series has 8 seasons with a total of 52 episodes, which were broadcast over a period of 11 years. Worldwide, the series over the years, gotten a cult status .

Despite the science fiction setting, the series is largely a sitcom. The show experienced its peak in 1994, when the episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse" won an International Emmy .

ContentEdit

[hide]*1 Story

Story[Edit]Edit

The series revolves around Dave Lister, who works on board my ship "Red Dwarf". He takes against the regulations of a cat on board the ship. For punishment should he be trapped in the stasis room . The cat is trapped in the cargo hold.

Shortly after Lister in the stasis room creates a cadmium II accident, taking in the ship is leaking. As a result, dies the whole crew and hits the ship such polluted that no life more can take place. The only ones who survive are Lister and his pregnant cat.

The computer attempts to clean the ship, but only after 3 million years is bringing the ship and the computer Lister thaw. Lister is the last man to board the ship, and possibly even the last man in the universe. To Lister to give some company, makes the computer a hologram of Arnold Rimmer, Lister had the most contact with the crew member where it used to be. Lister also discovered that the descendants of his cat in the cargo hold have further developed, and evolved into a humanoid race. The last of these humanoid cats, The Cat, joins the trio.

In the first few seasons is a common thread in the series Listers desire to return to the Earth, despite the fact that no one knows how that looks after 3 million years. [1In the second season the mechanoid Kryten, the Group met that connect with them from there. [2at the end of the fifth season is the Red Dwarf stolen and dismantled by nanobots, whereby the crew must change trains in a smaller ship called Starbug. Play the seasons 6 and 7 In this ship away. Rimmer leaves the series In season 7 in a parallel universe to the role of his alter-ego to take over there. Shortly after the crew discovered another parallel universe in which Kristine Kochanski, Listers girlfriend for the accident with the Cadmium II, was frozen in place by Lister. [3She joins the crew in the primary universe of the series after a series of bizarre events. [3]

In season eight, the nanobots rebuilt Red Dwarf by the same that the ship had been destroyed. [4also comes with all the original crew of the Red Dwarf back to life. At the end of the series, the Red Dwarf eaten by a virus. The crew, minus Rimmer, escapes to a parallel universe, but if they survive their arrival there is not revealed. The series ends with a Cliffhanger. [5]

Characters and actors[Edit]Edit

[1]

See list of characters in Red Dwarf for the main article on this topic.

  • Dave Lister, played by Craig Charles,[6the main character from the series. He was once the lowest crew of the Red Dwarf, to the Cadmium II as he only remained. Its primary goal is to return to Earth in the hope of starting a farm. [7]
  • Arnold Rimmer played by Chris Barrie,[6the crew of the second lowest on Red Dwarf. In reality he died at the accident. In the series he is just another hologram. [8]
  • The Cat, played by Danny John-Jules,[6a humanoid creature that has evolved from a contemporary House cat. He gives pretty much just to eat, sleep and his appearance. [9]
  • Holly (played by Norman Lovett in seasons I, II, VII and VIII[6and Hattie Hayridge in series III to V),[10the ship's computer with an IQ of 6,000, although this is strongly toned after three million years. He always shows itself in the form of a floating head on a monitor.
  • Kryten 2X4B Kryten, full-523P (played by Robert Llewellyn from series III)[6and once in series II by David Ross),[10a mechanoid who by the crew is saved from a crashed spaceship. [11]
  • Kristine Kochanski (originally played by Clare Groganbefore Chloë Annett took over the role in series VII) [10the navigator of the Red Dwarf, and Listers ex-girlfriend. They originally came to in the disaster with the cadmium II, but in season seven was made the crew an alternate universe in which she was still alive. They joined the group after the link with her universe was broken.
  • Captain Frank Hollister (played by Mac McDonald) [10the captain of the Red Dwarf. He died in the cadmium II-incident, but returned in season eight back when the nanonbots the crew brought back to life.

Themes[Edit]Edit

Red Dwarf contains many sitcomelementen, such as a typical group of clumsy individuals who live together in a small space, and took turns show how lazy, cowardly or awkward they are. There are also many sarcastic dialogues in the series for. With all that Red Dwarf is diametrically opposed to the intrepid space explorers will find that in a science fiction series.

The series contains many parodies of well-known science fiction themes and elements, such as time distortions, travel at the speed of light, mutant diseases and strange life forms. [1the series also contains references to, and parodies on, well known books, series and movies (not necessarily all from the science fiction genre) such as 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968),[12Top Gun (1986),[13RoboCop (1987), Star Wars(1977),[14Citizen Kane (1942),[15The Wild One (1953), High Noon (1952), Rebel Without a Cause (1955), Easy Rider (1969),[16The Terminator (1984)[17and Pride and Prejudice (1813). [18]

Aliens are coming in the series pretty much not for Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, there were against this.

Production[Edit]Edit

Concept[Edit]Edit

The concept for the show was originally conceived for the sketch series Dave Hollins: Space Cadet, which was part of the British Son of Cliché radio series on BBC radio 4. The sketch was written by Rob Grant andDoug Naylor. [19They took inspiration from movies and television shows as Alien (1979), Dark Star (1974) and The Hitchhiker's Guide to The Galaxy (1981). [20]

In 1983 the two wrote a pilot episode for the series, but this was denied by anyone at the BBC because it was thought that a sitcom about science fiction could be unpopular. [19the scenario Eventually accepted BBC North in 1986. The transmitter still had a budget for a second series of the series Happy Families, which never was made. Producer Paul Jackson insisted therefore that with this budget instead Red Dwarf would be included. [21however, The production ran delay on by a strike by electricians. [22eventually the pilot episode aired on 15 February 1988. [20]

Auditions[Edit]Edit

Alan Rickman and Alfred Molina did Audition for roles in the series, in which Molina was used as Rimmer. [23[24Molina, however, had problems with the concept for the series, and his role, so he left before production began the show and Chris Barrie was selected for the role of Rimmer.

Craig Charles was given the role of Dave Lister. He was approached by the production team when they wanted to know his opinion about the character "The Cat". Producers were afraid viewers would perceive this character as racist. [25Charles was made precisely the character perfectly. When he read the screenplay, he decided to audition for the role of Dave Lister. [22the comedian Norman Lovett, who had first tried to get the role of Rimmer, instead got the role of Holly. [25professional dancer and singer Danny John-Jules received the role of The Cat.

Production and direction[Edit]Edit

Grant and Naylor wrote the scenarios for the first six seasons. They did this under the joint pseudonym Grant Naylor. [26Grant left the series in 1995 to follow with other projects. [20[27Naylor wrote the scenarios for the last two seasons with a group of new writers, including Paul Alexander and actor Robert Llewellyn. [28]

Most of the series was produced and directed by Ed Bye. He left just before season five because he charge of another show, in which, among other things, his wife appeared, had been offered. Juliet May took his directorial tasks. [29May left the show half way through the series due to personal and professional reasons. After leaving names Grant and Naylor besides the writing work also the production in itself. [30it was directed by Andy de Emmony season six. Ed Bye returned as Director for seasons seven and eight.

The title song was written and performed by Howard Goodall. He also composed music for several songs in the series, such as "Tongue Tied", with lyrics written by Grant and Naylor,[31]

Remastered[Edit]Edit

In 1998, to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the show decided to digitally shine and the first three seasons on VHS back. This project is also called "Red Dwarf Remastered" called. In the new version were the old scale models for space ships replaced by computer animations and certain dialogues censored. [32were Also the scenes with Norman Lovett as Holly again taken to a fixed set of intro to get movies. [33]

Hiatus, changes, and mini series[Edit]Edit

Between seasons six and seven went on a three-year period; partly because of the departure of Grant Naylor as a writer, but also because the film crew kept busy with other projects. [27when the series to its seventh season began, there were a number of changes introduced. So, the series was no longer listed in front of a live audience as with many sitcoms. This enabled the producers to use more advanced scenery able to, and even to film on location. [34In season eight was the tradition of the series in front of a live audience to film restored. [35]

The eighth season would originally did not end with a Cliffhanger, but with a stop in which Lister, Rimmer, Cat and Kris in a situation similar to the first few seasons; in which they are the only ones on board the Red Dwarf.

A possible ninth season encountered many problems because BBC project refused. According to Doug Naylor came across this because BBC rather on other projects worked. [36finally came the ninth season not there.

In August 2008, Robert Llewellyn known that there were calls an hour on new Red Dwarf-to include material in early 2009. [37it was also mentioned that Dave UKtelevisiezender 30-minute specials include four would go to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the show. [38So appeared in 2009 the mini series Red Dwarf: Back to Earth, which is nine years after the last episode plays out.

Future[Edit]Edit

Craig Charles announced on BBC Radio 2 that started in January 2011 as possible would be to a new series of episodes. [39[40however, this is not yet certain, according to a post on the official Red Dwarf website.[41]

Episodes[Edit]Edit

[2]

See list of episodes of Red Dwarf for the main article on this topic.

Spin-offs[Edit]Edit

The show brought with it a large merchandising .

About the series are four books appeared: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers (1989), Better Than Life (1990), Last Human (1995) and Backwards (1996). [42The books give a new perspective on the backstory of the series. [43]

In 1992 the magazine appeared Red Dwarf Magazine, published by Fleetway Editions. This magazine contained among other comics, interviews and news reports. The magazine appeared until January 1994.

Universal Studios also undertook in 1992 an attempt to create an American version of the series titled Red Dwarf USA. There was a pilot episode made with Craig Bierko as Lister, Chris Eigeman as Rimmer, andHinton Battle as Cat. [44however, The pilot was never aired, and the series has not been created.

Since the end of the eighth season, Doug Naylor attempts to make a film about the show. A scenario written by Naylor circulating for some time on the internet. [45there were already plans to begin in 2005 with the recordings,[46but these had to be removed due to Naylor failed to find enough sponsors. According to Naylor was the scenario for the film rejected by both BBC as the British Film Council, partly because they found the scenario "too commercial". [47]

In 2002 brought Deep 7 a role-playing game called Red Dwarf the Roleplaying Game from. [48]

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