Professional wrestling (also called American wrestling or showworstelen) is a form of Theatre in General, with a lot of elements of wrestling. Modern professional wrestling usually contains hits and other techniques, which are modeled after various forms of worldwide wrestling and boxing styles.

Modern professional wrestling is a performance art, where participants create a show with entertainment by a martial arts contest to simulate. The level of realism may vary; of the American World Wrestling Entertainment level up to the highly realistic Japanese shoot-style or the dominant style in Mexico that mainly theatrical is: Lucha libre.


[hide]*1 professional wrestling as a performance art

Professional wrestling as a performance art[Edit]Edit

Professional wrestling is hugely popular in America, Japan and Mexico. There are also a number of wrestling In Netherlands organisations, such as Pro Wrestling Showdown (PWS) and Pro Wrestling Holland (PWH).Dutch is the largest Federation Pro Wrestling (DPW): they organize monthly shows in the Hague e.o. and draw hundreds of spectators (young and old).

Professional wrestling has its origins in the time of the travelling fairground shows. The professional form began as an expression for strong men, those Greek-Roman wrestling techniques combined with other wrestling forms and acrobatic performances and national and regional forms of wrestling and martial arts such as Judo Pehlwani, and so on. This earned them money for owners all over the world. In the early years of the 20th century was the "professional wrestling" just that, a professional contest of amateur-style wrestlers in a competition similar to professional boxing. Yet these games disappeared from the world of sports when television came to mind, especially because of their great length and lack of drama. Later it was figured out that the games could bring more money if they were set in advance in terms of length and drama.Professional wrestling for more than a century claimed organizers and participants that the League was real and they saved the secrets of the strict (when known as kayfabe).

In Great Britain was professional wrestling is very popular thanks to the Saturday afternoon sports show World of Sport on ITV during the ' 60s and ' 70s, where big names arose such as Mick McManus, Count Bartelli, Giant Haystacks, Jackie Pallo, Big Daddy and Kendo Nagasaki.

Professional wrestling In the United States was very popular in the 1980s, especially with names like "Hulk Hogan" (the most famous heavyweight champion), Andre The Giant, Big John Studd, Jake "the Snake" Roberts, Jesse Ventura("the Body") later also commentator along with Vince McMahon Jr., King Kong Bundy, Randy "Macho Man" Savage, "The Ultimate Warrior" and many many others. Now it's still very popular, but the glory times are over.

There started to arise in the cracks kayfabe when Vince McMahon in the 1980s to his World Wrestling Federation began to refer as "sports entertainment" to prejudices of the athletic commissions by most States to avoid and to lower insurance amounts for its events and to load on sporting events that are broadcast on pay-per-view to evade. Later the kayfabe becoming weaker in the WWF (and later in the world of professional wrestling), which led to the 1997 speech which aired on Monday Night RAW, in which McMahon promised to stop insulting the intelligence of his fans to keep up the illusion of reality and he referred to RAW as an action-adventure series. McMahon promised at the end also for the simple moral characters and replacing it with deeper, interesting characters and situations, a promise he has made rarely true. He added when other shows such as Friday Night Smackdown! , Sunday Night Heat and Velocity. Probably came the definitive end to the kayfabe in 2002 when the WWF changed its name to World Wrestling Entertainment, in response to a lawsuit by the World Wide Fund for nature (WWF in America).

Reality and fantasy[Edit]Edit

Professional wrestling is "simulated" in the sense that the outcome is determined in advance and that the effects on the opponent be exaggerated. Some treat the act as a form of entertainment or want to play and not use the word "fake" to describe it. Different pro-wrestling moves can really cause pain and cause serious injuries if they are wrong. Many professional wrestlers are angry and hostile as someone she belittles by wrestling fake to name a few. Sometimes they offer these people a chance to come into the ring and do what they do to avoid injuries every day, so that they themselves can see how "fake" it really is.

The large majority of the matches has predetermined results and be "worked" called. The results are determined by "bookers" to the "great heat" for the bad guys and the "(baby) face to maximize heat" for the good figures, often in the context of prolonged "feuds" or "story lines". The wrestlers usually determine in advance what major "spots", in which the key moments in a match become clear. During the match the order of the moves and transitions improvised by the participant by "calling spots", make it clear what they are going to do it to each other. The referee is often involved in the implementation of the plan and thus match to unforeseen circumstances in acting.

The vast majority of blood incidents in wrestling are real, and are often caused by the use of a small knife to make a small cut, usually on the forehead near the hairline. This is known as "sheets". Often the persons themselves while they process sheets out of sight keep. Sometimes sheets their opponent for them, sometimes because it is the first time for that person.

Bleeding is known as "juicing". When a wrestler unintentionally accidentally, such as after a broken nose bleeds, that "juicing hardway" called. When a wrestler hits harder than another wrestler express he would have to do, it is called "stiff" (rigid) or "potato".

In addition to what real violence there are constant times where the separation between reality and fantasy is unclear, especially when it comes to who should win the match. See the Clique for an example of this. In a single case, but in the last decades have seen less often, a wrestler will "shoot", meaning that he ignores the script and really trying to win. This is also known as "for yourself do business". In the past chose promotions instant world champions such as Lou Thesz who could really defend himself if the fight really would be.


The simulated conditions of professional wrestling is just one of the many differences it has with the traditional wrestling. Other differences can be found in the rules which have been drawn up for pro wrestling.

The referee often has the ultimate power in a match, and has so much authority that the reversal of a decision can be made only by a referee at the match involved; even the owner of the promotion has no influence on this decision. Of course, even this rule ever changed, depending upon the storylines of any given time. A common example of this is when a promotional high responsible owner or another adjusts the terms of the match to thwart the decision of the arbitrator, such as a match to a contest without disqualification exclamations like a wrestler WINS by disqualification. A "motto" used in the pro wrestling world to describe the interpretation of the rules (which are more like loose maxims serve is: "You can't call what you don't see", which means that anything goes as long as the referee don't see it). This is often used as a plot twist in order to cause a drastic change in the match. One of the most commonly used examples of this is when a referee "accidentally" is struck unconscious or is thrown out of the ring. When he is unconscious, wins a wrestler, usually a "face" suddenly the match but this victory is stolen from him by interference from the outside, an object from the outside or other unfair way. The referee who is unaware of what happened, it will be just in time to recover to a "pin" that reflects the new situation to see and makes a "three-count". A variation on this end, the "Dusty Finish, named after Dusty Rhodes, who often has used this kind of endings as booker, a replacement referee who makes the" three-count "in preference of the face, where the original referee reverses this decision. In addition to the "pinfall" can a match be won by an "submission", "count out",disqualification or not answering the "ten count".

Save is allowed as long as the wrestlers fist is open (this is known as a "chop"). This is probably the most ignored rule, because a referee rarely disqualifies a wrestler because of striking with the closed fist. Instead, calls a referee to stop only on the wrestler, which is rarely successful. In addition to this may only kick wrestlers with the flat part of the foot and a "low blow" (hit in the cross) only applies when the cross is captured.When one of the wrestlers in contact with the ropes, or when a part of the wrestler under the ropes, must be broken before any contact between the wrestlers there to five is counted. This strategy is often used to escape from a submission-grip, and less often a wrestler can prevent him losing by pinfall to lay by his foot on the ropes.


A wrestler must by pinfall to win the both his opponent's shoulders against the mat while the referee slaps the mat three times. This is the most commonly used form of profit. It is forbidden to use the ropes to be able to put more power at the pins.


To win by submission must be a wrestler so that his opponent is specified, usually, but not necessarily, by putting him in a submission hold (e.g. a leg grip, armgreep, head grip etc.).

Unconscious in a submission hold leads to loss by knockout. To determine if a wrestler is unconscious, the referee usually picks up a hand and let this fall. If this falls three times in succession without the wrestler has the power to stop it, he is considered as unconscious. This is usually largely ignored since around 1995, but it is still sometimes used when an "old-school" wrestler has a match.

Nowadays a wrestler can indicate that he specify by "tapping out", that is with his free hand against the mat store. The tapout is not a traditional part of professional wrestling; It was mid 90 's introduced in response to the growing popularity of martial arts competitions where the tapout was already accepted. Specify the option of oral use promotions, sometimes when a wrestlers cannot use his arms by the submission maneuver.


A count-out (CO) occurs when a wrestler is long enough so that the referee out of the ring to 10 can count (in some promotions to 20). When both wrestlers outside the ring, the count enters the ring as one of them interrupted and leaves again. If not, both wrestler finished counting. This is known as a double count-out (DCO).

If both wrestlers are not moving on the mat, the referee also count to 10. When one of the wrestlers his knees touch, the count dropped. If neither of these wrestlers his knees or feet can reach, it is counted as a tie, also known as Double knockout, or incorrect as a "ring count-out".

The count-out line indicates a wrestler can win any match when some of his opponents body not in the ring is. This allows that one can escape from a pinfall or submission-hold by one of the ring ropes and so to force the referee to the grip to eliminate or stop counting. This also explains why the referee starts with up to 10 count as a wrestler on the top rope sounds; He is outside the ring.


Attacks that are punishable with disqualification (or "DQ") include:

  • Conducting illegal handles or maneuvers, such as refusing to get a hold on an opponent at the ropes is, someone strangling or bite, on the upper "turnbuckle" remain and repeatedly hit with a closed fist, for more than the five controlled by the referee counting.
  • Interference of a person who is not involved in the match, by hitting or holding a wrestler. If someone tries to interfere with the match itself, but of the ring is turned away by a wrestler or referee for this happening, there is usually no disqualification.
  • Hitting an opponent with an object from the outside (except where the rules of the match specifically allow it).
  • A direct blow or kick in the cross (a low-blow).
  • The referee attacks.

In practice, the rules of the fight often violated without disqualification, because the referee distracted and do not see this, or because the referee sees it but the match still let go. Almost always, the referee see this offense with his own eyes to determine if the match ends in a disqualification and is this action by the referee almost always decisive. It is therefore often the referee "knock out" hits during a match. When the referee remains unconscious, rules often expres violating.

If both athletes (or teams) in a match by going against the instructions of the referee in the game sometimes ends in a double disqualification, in which both wrestlers or teams (in a tag team match) will be disqualified.The match ends in a draw really.


The rules for a one-to-a pro wrestling match are not always been the same. For example the NWA had a rule that the opponent is not allowed to be thrown over the top rope. The no longer existing WCW originally had the rule that one does not of the upper rope should jump on an opponent. Both cases would lead to disqualification. The World Wrestling Federation (now World Wrestling Entertainment) disqualified ever wrestlers because they tore at the clothing of the opponent while they covered them for a pin. This move is still banned in most promotions, but only now that the grip or pin is interrupted.



The mannenworstelen is the longest. It contains three main categories namely the cruiserweights (lightgewichten), light-heavyweights (between weights) and the heavyweights (heavyweights). In the most extreme cases we can expand this to five categories, with addition of featherweights (extreme ligchtgewichten) and super heavyweights (extreme heavyweights).

Over the years, knew the men Division a certain metamorphosis. In the early years were most outfits and wrestling handles very sober. Agility was present, but was regarded as spectacular. To a particular gimmick was not worked so hard or one used simple things to the public to their favor.

In the meantime, the outfits usually very colorful or gimmick-focused. Some come with giant chains to the ring, while others are completely unrecognizable under the makeup. Also the moveset underwent an evolution.So one regards agility this day almost for granted and one cannot do the audience enough to do somersaults.


Women take part in professional wrestling for a long time, first in woman-on-woman matches that are low on the list were in comparison with men's matches. Then (1960s-70s) was considered as the vrouwenworstelen still really struggling. Two female wrestling icons of that era were Mae Young and Fabulous Moolah.

To give a boost to the vrouwenworstelen, around the 90 's brought in more and more women who had previously had a unforgettable body than unforgettable talent. However, there were exceptions that were more than just a beautiful body. Lita was in the WWE then still known as the most extreme woman of that time. They counted in addition to a nice body also added a nice arsenal of luchador-movements. Those who approached the men category, anyway physically were treated as a freak show. The largest icon of the vrouwenworstelen at that time was Chyna which, thanks to her incredible physical, easily could have been a match for men. She was the first woman to do the Royal Rumble was between all men.

In the present era are women wrestlers as divas reflected. Their games have more than of actual wrestling-match away from catfights. The characteristics of the women's Division of in the beginning is hardly something retarded. Still, the roster now and then a ' freak show ', such as Beth Phoenix. It is seen as the modern Chyna as they too a lot of muscle power. As a result, was therefore the second wife Beth Phoenix in the history who might do at the Royal Rumble. As a result, she was generally seen as the altogether new Chyna.

Since the current female wrestling fans grow up with the latest image of female wrestlers go, they too become more and more like diva worn in the ring, making the real female wrestler has become a rare sight.


Dwarf wrestling is a unique aspect of professional wrestling and can be redirected back to the Carnival of professional wrestling. In the last years, the popularity and presence of dwarfs in wrestling greatly reduced.


The organizations that organize and produce the performances of professional wrestling are known as wrestling promotions. Currently, the only large remaining organization in North America the United Statespromote the WWE (and possibly TNA because of its recent addition to SpikeTV); and the Mexican lucha libre promotions Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and Asistencia Asesoría y Administración. Of these is the WWE is by far the largest and most influential around the world. While these organizations the most prominent and most popular, there are many other small, regional promotions known as "indies", most of which are official parts of the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) are. Other major independent promotions include WWA4, Ring of Honor, Pro Wrestling Guerrilla and Combat Zone Wrestling.

Outside North America, there are also other federations by Europe and spread in JapanPuerto RicoHawaii and the rest of the Caribbean.

The traditional Japanese style differs from the American style because it is portrayed more as a sport than as pure entertainment. The term "strong syle" is coined by the promoter Antonio Inoki New Japan Pro Wrestling. Inoki incorporated more martial arts and legitimate techniques in his arsenal and led the movements and attacks with more force than in the traditional American style, however, seem to do the pro wrestling. A style commonly referred to as King's Road was created by Giant Baba equal yet something else. This style is mainly used in All Japan Pro Wrestling and its derivatives.

The most prominent schools in the Benelux are Belgian Wrestling School (led by ex-WWF star Salvatore Bellomo) in Belgium and Pro Wrestling Holland in Netherlands. Also Dutch Pro Wrestling (DPW) provides training courses, just as the Antwerp Pro Wrestling Allstars and Westerlo's Flemish Wrestling Force (FWF)

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