Philip Kindred Dick (Chicago (Illinois), 16 december 1928 – Santa Ana (California), March 2, 1982) was a science fiction author , best known for cult statuswith a number of short stories to popular films were edited.
- Work 2
- 3 style, motifs and themes
- 4 Cult status and influence
- 5 Bibliography
- 6 Movies
- 7 Main prizes
- 8 References
Dick was born in the US and lived most of his life in California. His twin sister died at a young age. From 1952 he published a large number of science fiction stories, and also from 1960 science fiction novels. With The Man in The High Castle , he won the prestigious Hugo Award for SF authors.
Relevant to his work is the fact that Philip k. Dick was quite paranoid: he distrusted the fellow man. Initially it was assumed that this was the result of his generous view ondrugs: he regularly experimented with recreational drugs. It turned out that he suffered from epilepsy, which placed this in a different light. Something very strange happened In 1974 with Dick. He reacted badly on an anesthetic injection of the dentist and was for a long time haunted by visions and periods of madness and psychosis.Fanatic scored his wife his visions, which resulted in 8000 pages complete nonsense. He used some elements thereof in his later work.
The work of Dick consists of 121 (bundled) 44 short stories and novels.
The short stories are extremely rich in ideas and themes, and often particularly original in structure, so rich that one of a few pages can easily make a feature film. They were originally in American Sci-Fi magazines published, when Dick still had to prove their scant revenue and tried to live. The short stories are collected in five bulky parts. Collectors are willing to pay high prices for the original American science fiction magazines from the 50s and 60s that Dicks stories.
His novels are what arise later, when Dick all right could live by the pen. They contain the same themes as his short stories, but are less condensed. In addition, they showed that Dick could deepen his characters better. Yet soon fell his first novels came change not.. Interestingly, he processed his personal problems in those with award-winning novels. Dick was in when in psychological distress and sought refuge in drugs andPsychiatry. His novels from the beginning of the 80 's, with Valis on head (based on personal experience), cutting religious themes.
Philip k. Dick might have science fiction writing, however, the themes in his work deeply human: what makes us who we are? What is the role of memory in us? In a number of stories turns up a machine that can erase people's memories and/or add. In We can remember it for you wholesale sale you don't have a trip to Mars, but a reminder of a trip to Mars. Thus cuts Dick topical themes of brainwashing and advertising. Filmed In the story the main character carries a bomb Impostor in his heart, without even realizing it. More so, he turns out to be a robot/clone-are "real" I was killed. This cuts to the universal theme of the Dick explicit identity crisis. Not everyone carries a bomb with it, without realizing it? Also Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? deals with being human. The main character switches androiden out there they are not on Earth may move, but who or what is he himself?
A second theme is the derailed technological progress. Humanity produces complex, intelligent machines. If those machines are smarter/more strongly than humans, then they can ever mean our demise. In the storySecond Variety develops man warmachines that reproduces itself. Then it shows plots that those devices smarter, so Darwinian evolve (hence the title). Eventually wins the warmachines the of the conflicting human parties.
In other stories playing humanoid robots (androids) an important role: in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? kills a bounty hunter rebellious androids. But then it turns out that the robots have very human emotions: they want to really just die a natural death. Here goes the theme is about the idea that each man could be a robot, precisely because the ' thought ', whether or not implanted, is real.
Another theme is the paradox of the time. Dick brings together two motives here: it can travel in time and looking forward. He brings that related to ethical questions: If you know someone will commit a crime in the future, is that person than is already guilty? This concept, pre-crime, is at the heart of Minority Report.
Finally, there is the theme of the mind broadening: either through drugsor through religious revelation the character sees an alternative reality. For example, A Scanner Darkly a verkillend accurate picture of drug addiction. If we take religion seriously, we must respect not drug users as well? Not everyone sees are colored version of reality? What is it actually still, reality? Religion makes people life is broken, just as drugs do that? Or (true) religion is a way to "above" (constructive) and drugs a way to "down" (destructive), but leave them both from the same desire for self-knowledge? These themes make the work of Philip k. Dick also today still very topical.
The breakthrough to worldwide popularity came for Dick shortly after his death: the movie Blade Runnerappeared in 1982, based on Dicks book Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. This film acquired cult status very quickly, and is now on the list of the best movies ever. Other films followed: Total Recall, Screamers, Minority Report, Paycheck, A Scanner Darkly and The Adjustment Bureau.
It is striking that the filmmakers themselves often take inspiration from several short stories: both Steven Spielberg Paul Verhoeven as go very far. it seems as though they strongly fascinated by the fictional universe that Dick in his stories and want to contribute to their own Pebble creates. Examples of this are the numerous eye catching futuristic toys that pop up in the movies: in the original stories lack that often, or they are only briefly mentioned.
The literary critic Fredric Jameson called Dick the "Shakespeare of science fiction".  apart from the movies that directly result from his stories and novels influenced Dick dozens of other movies that deal with science fiction themes and special States of consciousness, such as The Matrix by the Wachowskibrothers, Michel Gondry and Charlie Kaufmans Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Spike Jonze and Charlie Kaufmans Being John Malkovich and Adaptation, Peter Weir's The Truman Show, Andrew Niccol Gattaca Terry Gilliams , 12 Monkeys, Wes Cravens A Nightmare on Elm Street, David Lynchs Mulholland Drive,Alejandro Amenábars Open Your Eyes, David Finchers Fight Club, Cameron Crowes Vanilla Sky, Darren Aronofsky's Pi, Richard Kelly's Donnie Darko and Southland Tales, Christopher Nolan's Memento andInception .
As far as is known, are English translations listed.
- Valis (1981)
- The Divine Invasion (1981)
- The Transmigration of Timothy Archer (1982)
- Solar Lottery also World of Chance(1955-; The Earth as Grand Prize )
- The World Jones Made (1956- Flight to Venus also The Star wanderers)
- The Man Who Japed (1956- the last laugh)
- Eye in the Sky (1957- the eye on the sky)
- The Cosmic Puppets (1957)
- Time Out of Joint (1959)
- Vulcan's Hammer (1960-the hammer of Donar)
- Dr. Futurity (1960)
- The Man in The High Castle (1962- Boots in the night also the man in the high Castle)
- The Game-Players of Titan the players of Titan (1963-)
- Clans of the Alphane Moon (1964- the seven clans of the Alphaanse Moon)
- Martian Time-Slip (1964- Martian time shift)
- The Penultimate Truth (1964- moment of truth)
- The Simulacra (1964)
- The Unteleported Man (1964- The loner)
- The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch (1964- the three stigmata of Palmer Eldritch )
- Dr Bloodmoney: or How We Got Along After the Bomb (1965- Dr. Bluthgeld, life after the bomb)
- The Crack in Space (1966)
- Now Wait for Last Year (1966- now waiting on last year)
- Counter-Clock World (1967)
- The Zap Gun (1967- under the spell of the bomb )
- The Ganymede Takeover (1967) (with Ray Nelson)
- Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968- the electrical nightmare also androids Dreams of electric sheep? and Blade runner)
- Galactic Pot-Healer (1969- The pot healer of the Galaxy )
- Ubik (1969-Ubik)
- Our Friends from Frolix 8 (1970- our friends from Frolix-8)
- A Maze of Death (1970- Flight in visions)
- We Can Build You (1972- The partner industry )
- Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said (1974- the tears of the policeman)
- Confessions of a Crap Artist (1975, only non-sf-novel that during Dicks life came out)
- Deus Irae (1976-with Roger Zelazny; The god of wrath)
- A Scanner Darkly (1977- Shadowy images)
- Lies, Inc. (1984)
- In Milton Lumky Territory (1984)
- Radio Free Albemuth (1985)
- Puttering About in a Small Land (1985)
- Man Whose Teeth Were All Exactly Alike (1985)
- Humpty Dumpty in Oakland (1986)
- Mary and the Giant (1987)
- Nick and the Glimmung (1988)
- The Broken Bubble (1988)
- In Pursuit of Valis (1991)
- Cantata 140 (2003)
- Voices from the Street (2007)
- A Handful of Darkness (1955- a handful of Darkness)
- The Variable Man (1957)
- The preserving Machine and Other Stories (1969)
- The Father-Thing (1971)
- The Book of Philip k. Dick (1973)
- We Can Remember It for You Wholesale (1976)
- The Golden Man (1980)
- I Hope I Shall Arrive Soon (1985)
- Beyond Lies the Wub (1987)
- The Collected Stories of Philip k. Dick (1987)
- The Days of Perky Pat (1987)
- The Dark-Haired Girl (1988)
- Second Variety (1989)
- Little Black Box (1990)
- The Minority Report (1991- Minority Report)
- The Philip K. Dick Reader (1997)
- Paycheck and 24 Other Classic Stories (2003)
- Vintage Pkd (2006)
- Human Is?: A Philip K. Dick Reader (2007)
- The Variable Man and Other Stories (2008)
- Breakfast at Twilight and Other Stories (2008)
Some of Dicks stories is made into a film, often not under the home-country professional title:
- Blade Runner (1982), based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?", directed by Ridley Scott with Harrison Ford and Rutger Hauer.
- Total Recall (1990), to the short story We Can Remember It for You Wholesale", directed by Paul Verhoeven with Arnold Schwarzenegger.
- Total Recall 2070 (1999) was a Canadian television series of one season, which was based on the same story.
- Minority Report (2002), based on the short story The Minority Report, directed by Steven Spielberg with Tom Cruise.
- Impostor to the short story, directed by Gary Fleder with Gary Sinise.
- Screamers (1995), based on the short story Second Variety", directed by Christian Duguay with Peter Weller.
- Paycheck (2003), to the short story ", directed by John Woo with Ben Affleck.
- Confessions d'un Damon (1992), a French movie to the non-SF novel Confessions of a Crap Artist.
- A Scanner Darkly (2006), based on the novel, directed by Richard Linklater with Keanu Reeves, Winona Ryder and Robert Downey Jr.
- Next (2007), loosely based on the short story The Golden Man", directed by Lee Tamahori with Nicolas Cage and Jessica Biel
- The Adjustment Bureau (2011), to the Adjustment Team short story (1954), directed by George Nolfi with Matt Damon and Emily Blunt in the lead roles
- Total Recall (2012), to the short story We Can Remember It for You Wholesale", directed by Len Wiseman with Colin Farrell, Jessica Biel and Kate Beckinsale, remake of Total Recall (1990) by Paul Verhoeven.