Boelgákov Michaíl Afanásjevitsj (Russian: Афанасьевич Булгаков;) (Kiev15 may 1891 - Moscow10 March 1940) was a Russian writer.


[hide]*1 Biography


Bulgakov studied medicine and worked for some time as village doctor near Smolensk. About 1919 he began writing for newspapers and magazines.

In 1924/1925, he published a number of episodes of his first novel, the white guard in the magazine Россия (Rossiya). Part 1 was printed in book form in 1927, part 2 in 1929, but not in the Soviet Union, in Paris. The only work that was published in its entirety during his lifetime in the Soviet Union is a bundle with five satirical stories:Diaboliade (1925).

His book the white Guard (1924) was one of the first serious attempts to describe the civil war in Ukraine. It first appeared in the newspaper Rossiya, and afterwards he commissioned by the Московский Художественный театр (Moskovski Choedozjestvenny Teatr)-the renowned Moscow art theatre or MKHAT -a play by. That was the days of the turbins, which premiered in 1926. It was said that this was one of Stalin's favorite plays. There would still follow nearly a thousand performances until 1941.

Bulgakov wrote several plays. His comedy Zoya's apartment was the public. In The Flight he described the horrors of a brother war. But the Главрепертком (Glavrepertkom), the Central Committee for Repertoires that had the power to sanction or prohibit plays, found that the play glorified the emigration of the White generals, and it was banned. His stories ' Dogs heart ' and ' the fatal eggs ' were banned from 1925. Bulgakov was one of the most popular playwrights of his time, but his pieces were badly received in the Soviet press. So was about 15 september 1929 in the newspaper Izvestia newspaper read: "his talent is obvious, but so is the reactionary social character of its work". As the Soviet Union was becoming more rigid ideologically at the end of the 1920s, came increasingly under fire, Bulgakov's work and his pieces were completely banned in 1929.

Bulgakov was without income and did what so many writers in that time did: he wrote a letter to the Government of the Soviet Union on March 28, 1930. In it he knew to report that he, in ten years writing, 301 had read about him in the Soviet press articles, "including: laudatory-3, hostile-abusive-298: похвальных Из них"-"-враждебно-ругательных-было 3,-298".

Further he asked in that letter, expressly in capital letters: "Я ПОРЯДКЕ В СРОЧНОМ ПРОШУ ПОКИНУТЬ ПРЕДЕЛЫ ПРИКАЗАТЬ СССР ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВО МНЕ СОПРОВОЖДЕНИИ В МОЕЙ ЛЮБОВИ ЕВГЕНЬЕВНЫ БУЛГАКОВОЙ СССР ЖЕНЫ"-"I would like to ask the Government of the USSR to me urgently on the borders of the USSR to leave in the company of my wife Lyubov Evgenevna Bulgakova".

Whether he really meant is questionable, because when a few weeks later, on 18 april 1930 Bulgakov, was called up by Stalin personally to his departure from the Soviet Union to discuss, not as Russian writer Bulgakov replied that he and the Russian language outside Russia could live. Stalin ended that conversation with the announcement that petition that Bulgakov had sent to the Soviet Government would have a positive effect. A short time later was offered him work at the Moscow art theatre. He spent his days as Assistant Director, librettist and translator.

Bulgakov started to make more and more operations and historical fiction-ideologically less dangerous things than original work. He Gogol's dead souls and Cervantes ' Don Quixote for the Russian Theatre. He also wrote a biography of the French playwright Molière, and a play, the cabal of hypocrites. That is about the situation of a writer under an autocratic dictatorship. The events surrounding the production of this piece were the basis for Bulgakov's theatre remained unfinished novel Black snow. After 4 years of rehearsals in the art theatre in the newspaper Pravda was under fire and it was after 7 performances no longer be played.Another piece, Pushkin (the last days), treated the same theme and suffered the same fate. Bulgakov was again in the rats and this time he was librettist for the BolshoiOpera.

From 1928 to 1940 Bulgakov worked to his main work: the master and Margarita, that among other things a parody of Stalin and life in the Soviet Union contains. The novel was first published in 1968 in the West completely, after appearance of a heavily censored Soviet version in 1966; between 1946 and 1966 had the genesis of the novel Bulgakov's widow, who had followed very closely and accompanied, six fruitless attempts made to get the book by the censorship .

Bulgakov hoped to come again in the favour of the regime by writing a play about Stalin on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The piece, Batum, took place in the Caucasus; Stalin's early years as an activist are portrayed. Bulgakov was on his way to Batum by train to the rehearsals starting when he was recalled to Moscowby telegram. The play was banned. This latest setback is likely to have had influence on his fellow already shaky health. He died on March 10, 1940, two weeks after he had improvements to the master and Margarita had made. The writer was no longer able to reconcile all the text portions. A full textual critical edition in Russian appeared in 1989/1990; the translation into Dutch by Marko Fondse and Aai Prins is based on this.


Dogs Heart[Edit]Edit

In ' Dogs heart ' is a professor, who more or less has managed to evade the dictatorship of the proletariat, working on rejuvenating experiments. He plant in a dog's testicles and the pineal gland just died from a musician who had a bad reputation. The dog is slowly a man who swears and is. He President of the papt Additionally to the fanatical residents Committee which on the success of the professor has coined. Under the influence of that fanatic comes the dog more and more in opposition to its creator. The Professor sees his error in and he brings the dog back to its original state. So he wants to save humanity from the monsters as hondse proletarian with its Marxist-Leninist slogans. The story includes many science fiction and satire. However, the criticism of the Russian revolution is also not tender.

The fatal eggs[Edit]Edit

In this story, the Russian biologist Persikov invented a particular kind of Red beam which eggs are hatched faster. The animals are also much greater. At the same time, there is a plague in the Soviet Union. The Central Committee of the Communist Party soon comes the discovery of Persikov on the track and sees opportunities to avert the imminent food shortage to fix it.

The Central Committee should set up a Sovkhoz , in which chickens are to be incubated with the Red beam. Order the authorities to do large amounts of chicken eggs. In the meantime, Persikov for his study reptiles eggs (crocodiles and snakes) ordered. Swap the eggs so that an unwary official the Sovkhoz, Fatal, the reptiles eggs under the leadership of Commissioner hatch. The consequences are recommended.

The title of the book is a pun of Bulgakov. The Russian title States: Роковые яйца (rokovie jaitsa) or fateful eggs or eggs of disaster. The Commissioner of the Sovkhoz is called in Russian Рокк however (Rokk). The translator Marko Fondse has this pun in the Dutch managed to capture in the title fatal eggs and the name of the Commissioner's Fatal .

The master and Margarita[Edit]Edit

[1]"What is truth?" Pilate and Jesus, byNikolai Ge


The master and Margarita , see main article.

The master and Margarita is a complex and multifaceted novel. The city of Moscow is made unsafe by the devil Woland and his cronies. These people make it especially the artists who walk along with the Soviet regime very difficult. The devil and his helpers committing murders, found fire, companies black magic, kidnap people, etc. According to the novel unmask and punished the devil in the Soviet Union the evil.

Margarita is not afraid of the Satanic company. They let themselves into a witch and goes in search of her disappeared lover, the master. He will stay in a psychiatric facility. He has written a book about Pontius Pilate (in which is described a completely different variant of the process against Jesus) but that is referred to by the publishing houses rejected and there follow impending articles on work in the press. This is the master collapsed completely.

The punitive expedition of the devil, the quest of Margarita and the excerpts from the novel about Pontius Pilate are the most important building blocks for the novel. However, the main theme is the relationship between the writer and the society. The big idea here is that the literature is essential in life.

The master and Margarita is apart from a critique of the Soviet society between 1920 and 1940 also a variant on the story of Tristan and Isolde. Love will overcome everything.The book shows the large creative Phantasy of Bulgakov.

The book is censored in Russia originally issued. The foreign versions, including the Dutch, often have the full text. There are versions which the deleted text is italic print. This gives the reader a good impression of how the Soviet system.

His work is in a Russian tradition of satire that starts at Gogol and was continued by writers such as Zostchenko, the writing duo Il'f and Petrov and Daniil Kharms.

The Bulgakov Museum in Moscow[Edit]Edit

In Moscow there are two museums that the literary and cultural legacy of Mikhail Bulgakov in honour. Both are situated in the apartment building at Bolshaya Sadovaya Ulitsa No. 10, where Bulgakov lived and where key scenes from his novel the master and Margarita are situated.

A rivalry exists between the two museums, which mainly maintained by the official M.A. Bulgakov Museum, later established that invariably as "the first and only Memorial Museum of Mikhail Bulgakov in Moscow[1]

The Bulgakov House[Edit]Edit

[3]The Bulgakov House in Moscow


See main article: Bulgakov House topic.

The Bulgakov House (Russian: Музей-театр "Булгаковский Дом") is located on the ground floor of the building. It was founded as a private initiative on May 15, 2004. [2]

The Bulgakov House displays personal effects and photos of the author, and organises many exhibitions about Mikhail Bulgakov and his work. There are regular literary events and festivals, and excursions to the Moscow of Bulgakov, some of which are animated by living characters from the master and Margarita. The Bulgakov House also manages the Theater M.A. Bulgakov with 126 seats, and the Café 302-bis.

M.A. Bulgakov Museum[Edit]Edit

In the same building, in apartment number 50 on the fourth floor, is another museum that keeps the memory of Bulgakov, the lively Museum M.A. Bulgakov (Russian Музей М. А. Булгаков). This second museum is a Government initiative, and was founded on 26 March 2007. [3]

The M.A. Bulgakov Museum displays personal effects and photos of the author, and organises many exhibitions about Mikhail Bulgakov and his work. There are regular literary events.

The Mikhail Bulgakov Museum in Kiev[Edit]Edit

The Mikhail Bulgakov Museum in KievUkraine is located in the birth House of the author. It is also the home where Bulgakov's theatre play the days of the Toerbin and his novel the white guard take place. [4]

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