Martin Heidegger (Meßkirch26 september 1889 – Freiburg im Breisgau26 May 1976) was a German philosopher. His philosophical master work, being and time, was published in 1927. In this metaphysical work try Heidegger an answer to the question how man could be free in the ordinariness.

Heidegger was, particularly through its membership of the Nazi party from 1933 until the fall of the nazi regime, anything but uncontroversial. However, he formed a great inspiration source for many philosophers after him.


[hide]*1 Life


[1]The Mesmerhaus in Meßkirch, where Heidegger grew up the House

Martin Heidegger was born on 26 september 1889 in Meßkirch (Upper Swabia) in a Roman Catholic family, as the oldest child of Friedrich and Johanna Heidegger. His father was a Cooper and koster of the local Roman Catholic Church. With a scholarship from a Catholic Foundation, he visited the gymnasium in Konstanz (1903) and afterwards (1906) in Freiburg im Breisgau (Black Forest). In 1909 he was student, he originally wanted to become a priest because theology – – but from 1911 philosophy.In 1913 he received his PhD in 1915, followed by the Habilitation (with the right to itself to teach at a University). He was then in Freiburg Assistant to Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology.

In 1917 he married Richard Petri, who is originally from Lutheran, which would have a great influence on its further practical life. So for example, she designed the Hütte, a wooden cottage on a hill at Todtnauberg, now ski resort, where Heidegger rest time and again were looking for and where its most important works have been established.The couple had two sons of Hermann who later co-editor of Heidegger's work has been collected.

Although Heidegger for a time had a certain appreciation for Husserl, he developed in a different direction, namely that of ontology, the teaching of the essence of being, and especially the truth of being. He renewed this metaphysics.

In 1923 followed an extraordinary professorship in Marburg, a small town where he is not really felt at home: he wrote in letters about the matte and sullen atmosphere, and he was glad he could in the holidays to the Hütte . An intimate relationship with his Jewish student Hannah Arendt brought some relief. Another positive point was that his lectures attracted an ever growing number of enthusiastic students, which mesmerized by the philosophizing that were before their eyes seemed to happen. His innovative ideas that he developed on his study, he tried out on the students in the colleges. As his fame increased in Germany, although he hardly published. When Husserl's stepping down was announced as a professor, he is in great haste on writing a comprehensive ontological study, prepared in his lectures, which appear in 1927 large gained, namely Sein und Zeit (SuZ). Thanks to this master work he could be a professor and he finally established his name as a very original thinker.

Partly because of SuZ he returned back to Freiburg in 1928 as a successor of Husserl, on the latter's world-renowned Chair for philosophy, as der heimliche König der Philosophie, such as Hannah Arendt called him.

[2]Martin Heidegger recommended s grave in Meßkirch

The rise of the National Socialist movement (NSDAP) in Germany also left Heidegger not untouched. His wife was ardent supporter of the Nazi party. From 1932 sympathized with Hitler's ideal of national Heidegger openly upliftment (Erhebung ' national '). After the philosophy to have renewed, he wanted to renew the society. On 21 april 1933 his colleagues almost unanimously chose him as the new rector of Freiburg University. He followed this professor Von Möllendorf on that (probably) under pressure from the nazi Government the day before was resigned. On May 3, 1933, he performed with a large number of other professors and teachers demonstrative member of the NSDAP (for this group there was no compulsory membership, as though gold for officers). Heideggers practical-political act found its climax in hisRektoratsrede on May 27, 1933, with which he accepted his new position. Also a number of conferences, lectures and speeches from that year witnesses of faith in the new Germany.

In his Rektoratsrede he advocated a by a leader (' Führer '), namely Heidegger himself, led University with very much public participation for young teachers and students that the framework would train for a substantial other elite in the new Germany, that an end to the utterly conservative academic training.

After a year (april 1934), he served all his resignation, disappointed because he wanted to reach adequate support for what he (by internal sabotage and lack of clarity) got from the NSDAP. He remained, however, Professor at the University of Freiburg and joined the Nazi party until the end of the Second World War. He also remained up to its end of life in his thinking true to his ideal of a national Erhebung: on the basis of the original thinking of the ancient Greeks (the for-socratics) and also inspired by poets such as Friedrich Hölderlin and the essence of each Are to consider again the Dasein .

After the end of World War II, he was awarded by the French occupation forces until his retirement in 1951 a learning school in Frankfurt. He was not deprived of his Professorship, his salary was paid, but he was not allowed to give colleges more. Heidegger wrong thereby quite some time in a severe psychological crisis.

From the early 1950s he again took thought on the essence of art, the language, the technique, of building and living. A core theme remained the criticism of the human will to power, to world domination and the supremacy of the maatloze technique. On the other hand, he suggested the man/poet/philosopher as the guardian of the Are. He became a sought-after speaker at seminars and enjoyed high regard. Much work was in all kinds of languages, and especially France experienced a true through Levinas Heidegger-renaissance. Back in the early 1970s he withdrew more and more from public life.

He died In peace on May 26, 1976 in Freiburg. On 28 may in his own request he was expressly birthplace Meßkirch on Catholic way buried.


It's impractical Heideggers extraordinarily extensive oeuvre to summarize in a nutshell: it is too extensive and exhibits the too many developments and shifts in attention and subjects. In addition, not all published works of Heidegger. Vittorio Klostermann Verlag publishing house works (for more than 30 years) to an edition of the complete works of Heidegger (' Gesamtausgabe ') which is expected to eventually more than 100 parts will exist. But despite the multitude of its subjects and the developments in his thinking, the heart of his work is the demand for the meaning of being. This is the search for this, such as Heidegger calls it, "the Are of the Being". From this ' being ' is all that ' is ', determined that it is and how it is. According to Heidegger, the Western ontological philosophy itself from Aristotle dealt exclusively with the being and the most substantial dimension, namely the question behind/below it avoided.

Initial inspiration[Edit]Edit

Initially, in his early years, he is enthralled by the Freiburger Scholasticism (Habilitation about work of the medieval philosopher Duns Scotus), Aristotle, church fathers andSide. Then his attention shifts to the phenomenology of Husserl, after all – he is than Assistant whose phenomenological method a large influence on his thinking. During his years in Marburg have among others, PlatoAugustineLutherand Hegel Schelling , Kierkegaard his interest. Also his contact with the Protestant Marburg theologian Rudolf Bultmann there will have a major impact.

Being and time[Edit]Edit


See being and time for the main article on this topic.

Heidegger's most important work appears In 1927, Sein und Zeit (SuZ; in the Dutch translation of m. Walker in 1998 appeared as being and time). In this book is the demand for it, or ' world ', centraal. Heidegger goes looking for an answer to this question using phenomenological ontology, which is first, to address the existence of Dasein, in other words the ordinariness of the man. In other words: what is implicitly in the ontische (the for-ontological, everyday average exist, such as itself as phenomenon occurs to man) will be made explicit, and this opens the ontological.

' Being ' or ' world ' is what ' harassing ' (things with which we are familiar in everyday life) can transcend. Heidegger takes as an example the world of hammering: man used a hammer, then associates the this thing first of all not as a piece of iron and a piece of wood, but with the world of hammering. In this way, let the man being (hammer) have its meaning; It gives the freedom on his world (hammering). By acting, by being free to give up, there is always already in the ordinariness to transcendence, world.

All completed, concrete ways of in-the-world are (you can think of many other examples: that of transport from A to B, cooking, etc.) belong to one set of relations. According to Heidegger is not on every free-give-back on this combination of associations eventually though, but on the ability (or mogelijkheidsvoorwaarde) of everyday smoking at all-give-on, namely a still unresolved possibility (the primary which, or the can-are) which man has no association. In other words, this capability is a nothing.

Sein und Zeit is at the same time, an examination of the freedom: being a free man would be open, accessible. But Heidegger notes that in reality, in everyday life, not just the man free; that it does not realize that it is actually always been compares to possibility. This lack of freedom has to do with the others with whom the man typically is facing. In the everyday life goes on in life as one man it lives. Heidegger calls this ' the One ' (das Man). The One relieves the man, but at the same time deprives her individual responsibility. Into the open man becomes distant and life gets a typical character. "As it should" is elevated above what can be risky, and thereby the well-known elevated above the unknown. Stronger expressed there is nihilism: the moral question "How should we live?" is not usually mentioned in the ordinariness.

So much for the in-the-world are of the Dasein, the familiarity of the man with his everyday life. A phenomenon in which the actual existence, in which the openness of the unknown, for possibility, however, is the fear.It's not the fear of a threat, but the loss of the everyday, familiar world. The man can at such a moment, on which the whole life suddenly seems meaningless, backtracking to its safe, completed life. However, the alternative where the Heidegger is the bold step to this ' nothing ' not out of the way to go. Man throws it in that case somewhere on the back, but it does not know exactly what to expect. At that time the Dasein to himself and the others forward: it focuses on (located in opportunity) freedom in his own personal existence. But this possibility has not made a reality, and is thus not hold out. In addition, it is according to Heidegger case to, when you have obtained a special possibility or an insight, this is not for yourself, but to bring it back in society.

The man can thus are free by ability first to let go, but must then something of the case in question (the open way of life that is pursued, the freedom or opportunity) back into the world where he is initially against depart. Heidegger then translates this message in a time theory, in which the open future precedence (by pre-empting the possibility, in), then that future is brought back in the past (life in which man always already cast was, where the concentrated precisely man can bring a living tradition), and eventually into the present the concrete realization of this case happens and the man falls. Heidegger breaks so with the linear time, to which nihilism, that always hangs in the past, is guilty.

On the essence of the ground[Edit]Edit

After the publication of SuZ he dedicated himself in 1928 to Vom Wesen des Grundes are text (Ned. vert. About the nature of the ground, 2001). In this text many times themes of SuZ back, but now in order to ' world ' and ' ground '. According to him, many Central philosophical and scientific questions eventually Foundation questions: ask for the why or allowing, or ask for the purpose, the sense, the possibility conditions, thepresuppositions from which, and so on.

On the essence of truth[Edit]Edit

In the lectures, the presocratics and Plato to the order. He reflects again on the essence of the truth – ' nature's thought as a verb – such as that in the Greek word aletheia is expressed: onverborgenheidliterally. In doing so, he reveals the structure of the truth as this precedes and shapes the common conception of truth. We expect a true statement of durability and reliability: He knocks and always supports our lives. However we also know that the reality is never to catch in a ruling thereon. Before that, she is always too complex. Heideggers starting point of truth is it true-take, for example, if we taste or the soup salt enough: the tongue tastes, the head shall evaluate and we find. Such statements, but also scientific, are only possible when the truth unfolds on prior level and at the same time hides. What was hidden, can partly be revealed, but then again the same way acted as a decoy. So there will never be a definitive answer on what question are. Also for Heidegger metaphysics could only lead on ' faith '.

With Vom Wesen der Wahrheit 's talk he pulls in those years (autumn 1930 to 1932) throughout Germany. He shows therein that the essence of the freedom is the truth. It is the freedom of letting-a ' being ', making something ' is ' and there is a true statement about can be done.

The final version of the text of it has been instrumental in the Heidegger-interpretation. The so-called Kehre, the folder which would have taken place in his thinking, are in it for the first time would be identifiable.

Reflect on are of the truth, and the Führer-guide that he examines in Plato's allegory of the cave , coincides with the arrival of those other Führer, Adolf Hitler. There is much to be said for a while that Heidegger (for year end 1932/1934) in Hitler – but certainly also in itself as far as the "new thinking" – such a guide function, see the guide that the out-and-out geketenden would lead to the light in the cave.

Captain of new kind of University[Edit]Edit

Not for nothing says Heidegger in his Rektoratsrede (27 May 1933: That Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität) that he considers himself the Führer of Germany, a new academic community in the new aKampfgemeinschaft in search of the truth of the ancient Greeks. He points the students on their connection with ' the people ' that the wearer is of that original truth, and binds the students closer to those people's community through Arbeits-, Wehr-, und Wissens service. He sees this as a great beginning of a whole new era in which students with scientists work together within a real academic community as he already had in his Antrittsrede (1929) announced.

Art and "resignation"[Edit]Edit

After he has withdrawn from the really practical-political happening (april 1934) he focuses among other things on the essence of the art (for example, in Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes (1935), poetry (Hölderlin in particular, in whose work he is a continuation of the ancient Greek thinking believed to recognize), thinking especially of Hegel and Nietzsche (in comprehensive colleges). During the war years he returned, with lectures on Herakleitos, Anaximander and Parmenides, again back to the ancient Greeks. It's rather revolutionary thinking from the early thirties now has given way to more Gelassenheit, it come all over them in peace from the truth. In this context, it shall take, among other things in Brief über den Humanismus ' (1947), distance from the Existentialism like that especially in France (including Sartre) had developed. Heidegger is Sartre's interpretation of parts from Sein und Zeit inadequate.


Heidegger described his vision of technique in Which Frage nach der Technik (1954), and That Technik und die Kehre (1962). According to Heidegger dominate science and technique in Western culture. Modern technology is not a neutral force, but a form of emerging-to-progressing ontbergen. This technique allows the nature the requirement, is compelling, challenges her and want her master. Nature is in our direction taken with regard to its supplies of energy. Heidegger uses the term order, with which he indicates that not only there is a ontbergen by unlocking and bring to light, but that there is also something else promoted becomes as economic advantage. The order results in a ontbergen of nature, the things and the people. The result is the file. This also ordered should always and everywhere available to order for a more far-reaching.

According to Heidegger threatens human existence to the rule of the modern technique to go down. The human being needs to another way of thinking, in which the achievements of science and technique can continue to retain, without the possibility of a real human existence is raised in advance. Opposite the technical thinking in which activity and control take center stage, set the contemplative Heidegger think focusing on authenticity and experience.


Heidegger speaks in 1951 after his Emeritierung in seminars and lectures especially on the essence of the technique, of ' the thing ', of building and living as beings parts of the Dasein. He warns of the ' oblivion ' (Therefore) of his the technique worshipers who are blinded by the concrete and malleable. Meanwhile, he is back on the essence of the being-but now with the challenging technique as danger. He quotes here Hölderlin: "wo wächst das Rettende auch Gefahr ist, which".

Great stir an interview with Heidegger in Der Spiegel (born 31 May 1976)[1that 10 years earlier had decreased but only after his death was allowed to be published. So, he states that only a god could save humanity still: "Nur ein Gott retten kann uns nor". In the interview, Heidegger again no distance of his thinking and acting as rector in 1932/1934; again he warns against the immeasurable desire for power known to man in thistechnisches Zeitalter again away from the real, true thinking, and now perhaps for good.

Influence and omstredenheid[Edit]Edit

Both the content of his work and in terms of person is Heidegger is not uncontroversial. Are very personal, often difficult-to-understand language use is in the eye of ' heideggerianen ' fascinating, hypnotic and poetic. The influence of his language one finds, among other things, back to Sartre and Derrida. However, that same language use finds no mercy in the eyes of for example Adorno (Jargon of the Eigentlichkeit) andGünther Grass (Hundejahre) who consider it as bombastic and inextricable jargon. As a person is in question because of his voluntary membership, Heidegger shortly after the seizure of power by Hitler, the Naziparty (NSDAP). His even more compromising – sure initially – actual political support for that party. Among other things, Adorno and Habermas have tried to show that Heidegger's influence and tone have led to an atmosphere in Germany that led to the rise of Hitler. However the French deconstructivist philosophers Derrida and Lyotard consider especially the ' Rektoratsrede ' of Heidegger as a fundamental and positive adjustment of thought and education in the modern State. Many philosophers consider Heidegger's thinking with them as a source of study and inspiration.


Martin Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe (GA) appears since 1975 at Vittorio Klostermann/Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are more than 100 parts planned. In the meantime, (2007) there are more than 70 parts appeared: publications, lectures, presentations and documents.

Also a large number of previously separate published books are still being reprinted, including the well-known bundles Holzwege, Wegmarken and Unterwegs zur Sprache.

Fascinating are also a number of collections of letters: Martin Heidegger, 'Mein liebes Seelchen ' – Briefe an seine Frau Hassan Martin Heideggers 1915 – 1970 (2005) Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger: Briefe 1925 bis 1975 und andere Zeugnisse. (3rd Dr. 2002) [Now also in Dutch. translation] Martin Heidegger/Karl Jaspers: Briefwechsel 1920 – 1963. (1990)

Secondary literature: We cannot begin to imagine almost is the number of publications on Heidegger.

An overview of what appeared until 2005 (7609 titles), one finds in Alfred Thinker & Holger Zaborowski, Heidegger Jahrbuch I (2005), p. 429 – 578.

Dutch literature: For a general view of Heidegger (people and work):

  • Rüdiger SafranskiHeidegger and his time, 1995 (a translation of Ein Meister aus Deutschland – Heidegger und seine Zeit, 1994). (with bibliography)

Martin Heidegger, being and time, trans. by SuZ by m. Walker (1998) A detailed introduction, analysis and explanation of SuZ gives Jacob van Sluis, tassel in being and time (1998) Martin Heidegger, What is metaphysics Inl. J. Aler; Transl. m. van Nierop (1970) Martin Heidegger, the origin of the work of art. Transl. m. Walker & CHR. Bamber (1996) Martin Heidegger, the end of philosophy and the indication of thinking . Vert e. g. & m. Walker (1988) Martin Heidegger, Resignation Vert. and inl. E. van Doorselaere (1979) Martin Heidegger, the technique and the turnaround Vert. and inl. H. Backhouse (1973) Martin Heidegger, About thinking, building and living Vert. and inl. H. Berghhs (1991) Martin Heidegger, The country road Vert. and inl. Jacob van Sluis and Alfred Thinker (2001) Martin Heidegger, The understanding of the time – phenomenology and theology Vert. Jacob van Sluis and Alfred Thinker (2001) Martin Heidegger, About the nature of the ground – on the essence of truth Vert. Harald van Veghel (2001) Martin Heidegger, only a God can save us Inl. Jacques De Visscher; Transl. Paul Beers (2002) Martin Heidegger, the basic question of the metaphysics Vert. Cornelis Verhoeven (2003) Martin Heidegger, About humanism Vert. Chris Bamber (2005) Martin Heidegger, the principle of ground Vert. Mark Walker (2009) Martin Heidegger, Introduction to metaphysics Vert. h.m. Backhouse (revised edition 2014) Martin Heidegger, the demand for the technique Vert. Mark Walker (2014) An extensive commentary on this text gives Gerard Visser, Heidegger's inquiry to the technique (2014)

Alfred thinker, Because life is philosophy. An archaeology of Martin Heidegger's "Sein und Zeit". (DISs. 1997) Jacob van Sluis, Heidegger, think roads and wander roads (DISs. 1997) John Aler (ed.), Martin Heidegger 1889 – 1976: philosophical resonance in the low countries (1991)

Marinus screwdrivers, Heidegger's part is the report of a ramble along the resorts that Heidegger's life have highlighted. Philosophy and history correlate in such a way that the metaphysics foothold in the time provided. Second revised edition. (2006.)

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