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Marcel Breuer (Pécs1902 - May 21, New York1 July 1981) was an American architectInterior Designer and furniture designer of Hungarian origin.

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[hide]*1 Biography

Biography[Edit]Edit

Training[Edit]Edit

Breuer was born on May 22, 1902 in the Hungarian town of Pecs. In 1920, he went with a scholarship to the Academy of art in Vienna, but he was not satisfied with the training. He worked for several weeks at an architect, but moved to Germany when he founded through Vamsi Forbát heard recently about the Bauhaus . [1]

Breuer started as a pupil at the Bauhaus In 1920 on the carpentry department. In 1921 he designed the African Chair and in the following year, 1922, the wooden slats Chair. The latter Chair is considered one of the most important products of the Bauhaus. In 1923 he was involved in the design of the experimental House Haus am Horn, which was developed for the Bauhaus exhibition of that year. He designed and made some furniture for the living room and the bedroom, including the dressing table with which he graduated in 1924. [1most furniture Breuer designed between 1921 and 1925, which show a spiritual kinship with the work of the Dutch furniture maker Gerrit Rietveld. [2]

Career[Edit]Edit

After working for a short time in 1924 Breuer architectural Office in Paris, he returned back to the Bauhaus in 1925 to get started as head of the furniture Department. In the same year he produced his first steel-tube furniture: the Wassily Chair or B3-Chair. On this Chair followed various furniture in the same technique and with the same material. This furniture were made by Standard-Möbel (1927) and Michael Thonet (1928/29).In the following years, Breuer was involved in the design of and furniture designs for the Masters ' Houses and other school buildings of the new Bauhaus- Dessau complex.

In april 1928, Breuer, Walter Gropius, at the same time as the Bauhaus. He opened an architectural firm in Berlin. In this period he was particularly active as meubelontweper and interior designer. Its architecture designs were not yet implemented. When he received less orders in the 1930s, he traveled to Spain , among other things, Greece, and North Africa. [1]

In 1932, the building of the Harnischmacher House in Wiesbaden realized as first architecture project of Breuer. In 1934 followed the Doldertal-houses in Zurich, which he had designed jointly with Alfred and Emil Roth. In the same period worked Breuer to aluminum furniture. In 1933, he won in Paris a prize for his designs, which were taken into production in 1934. [1]

In 1935 Breuer left because of his Jewish descent was forced to London. Here he opened an architectural firm together with f.r.s. Yorke. In the Gane Pavilion (1936) for the first time in Bristol combined Breuer traditional materials-such as stone and wood of local sources-with modern elements. This design characterized from then on its houses. [1]

Two years later, in 1937, established in the United Statesitself finally Breuer. He was Professor at the School of Design of the Harvard University. Breuer worked together intensively from Cambridge with Walter Gropius. Together they designed a few private rooms, including the House of Gropius himself, and in 1939 the Pavilion of Pennsylvania on the New York World's Fair. [1]

Breuer started a private practice In 1941, which was by the oorlogsituatie little successful. He retired In 1946 as a lecturer and established his Office in New York. In the late 1940s and in the 1950s he performed about 70 contracts for private homes from. The majority of these commands in New England , he worked with the same materials and techniques. After the New York MoMA in 1948 had organized a traveling exhibition on his work, was asked the following year Breuer in the ' House in the Museum Garden ' design. [1]

The collaboration with Pier Luigi Nervi and Bernard Zehrfuss for the design of the UNESCObuilding in Paris (1953) earned Breuer international recognition as an architect on. In the same year he designed in collaboration with Alsace in the building of The Bijenkorf in Rotterdam. Following the example of Le Corbusier worked Breuer in this period especially with concrete in order to be able to emphasize monumental and sculptural forms. Other buildings of his hand are the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York and the American Embassy (the Hague). Desk Breuers, Marcel Breuer and Associates, worked from this time repeatedly to large-scale projects in Europe and the United States. The Office had in this period also have an Office in Paris. In the 1950s and 1960s was Breuer internationally admired and he was one of the most successful architects of his time.

Marcel Breuer died on 1 July 1981 at the age of 79 in New York. [1]

Most important furniture designs[Edit]Edit

  • African Chair, 1921
  • Wooden slat Chair, 1922
  • Wassily Chair (B3-Chair), 1925

Main architectural works[Edit]Edit

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