John of England (English: John Lackland; French: Jean sans Terre) (Beaumont Palace (Oxford), 24 december 1167 – Newark Castle (Newark-on-Trent,Nottinghamshire), 18/19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 to 1216. He was the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was his father's favorite son, but since he was the youngest, he received no areas on the Mainland, which explains his nickname. After the death of his brother Richard the Lionheart in 1199, he succeeded him, not without a struggle, on.
- 2 Power handle
- Rule 3
- 4 For parents
Even before his accession to the throne Jan had a bad reputation as a traitor and conspirator, sometimes with, sometimes against his older brothers. Already in 1184disputed Jan and Richard together the succession of Aquitaine, which led to much bad blood between them. However, In 1185 the administration of Ireland, Jan where he managed to create, within six months so unpopular that he had to leave the country.
In 1189 , he married Isabella, daughter of count William of Gloucester. They had no children and shortly before or shortly after his accession to the throne on 6 april 1199, he left the marriage null and void.
After Richard the lion heart in the summer of 1190 was left for the third crusade, Jan did an attempt to seize power, although his brother had forbidden him to leave France. He chose even match for the King of France against the Governor by his brother left for the French possessions. When Richard returned in 1194 he eventually forgave his slip. This episode is widely known through the stories around Robin Hood and in the novel Ivanhoe by sir Walter Scott, in which (not entirely truthful) Richard is portrayed as the hero and Jan as the villain.
During the siege of Châlus in Limousin Castle was hit by an arrow in his shoulder and Richard hit thereby mortally wounded. Since Richard had appointed Jan as a successor, it was accepted as King in England. The French regions (apart from Normandy) moved forward, however, another pretender: Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, the son of Galal, the third son of Henry II. This led to a war, which in may 1200 a came to an end with the peace of Goulet. Jan had to let a few feathers here on the Mainland. The peace was short-lived, because the French King Philip II Augustus , together with Arthur resumed the fight. Eventually he finally stripped by Arthur to strangle by him in1203 . After the battle of Bouvines (1214) lost almost all areas in France hit Jan. By his own unreliability he had the allegiance of many of his loan men will be forfeited.
By now he was in August 1200 remarried with Isabella of Angoulême, who was 20 years younger. They had five children, the sons
Jan extracted itself via taxes the displeasure on the neck of his barons and like his father Jan came firmly into collision with the Church. This last came through his rejection of Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. Pope Innocent III placed England under interdict in March 1208 (a suspension of ecclesiastical controls) and did Jan in 1209 in the ban. He was even In January 1213 of the lapsed throne. However, In may submitted Jan to papal authority and managed to prevent this other impending doom. He kept his country for the Pope in leen, and possessed no country formally itself more so (his nickname "John of England" is also called this explained).
The ever-continuous wars ended with the great defeat in the battle of Bouvines, then a very unfavorable peace treaty with France had to be closed. The barons were again dissatisfied, as well as the clergy and the bourgeoisie. On 15 June 1215 he was forced at Runnymede to sign the Magna Carta . Because that statement was signed under duress, however, not to Jan felt bound. He got the support of the Pope, but this could not avail.
The insurgents wanted to transfer the Crown to the French Crown Prince Louis (the future French King Louis VIII). This drew in June 1216 London inside. Jan withdrew to the North. While he crossed The Wash was his luggage procession surprised by the rising tide. Jan became prized possessions lost, including the Crown jewels. By the loss hit his physical and mental health affected. He died on 18 or 19 October 1216 todysentery and was buried in the Cathedral of Worcester. His nine year old son succeeded him as Henry III.
|Ancestors of John of England|
|Great Grandparents||Fulk V of Anjou (1091-1143)
∞ 1109 Ermengarde of Maine (1096-1126)
|Henry I of England (1068-1135)
∞ 995 Matilda of Scotland (1079-1118)
|William IX of Aquitaine (1071-1126)
∞ Philippa of Toulouse (1073-1117)
|Aimery I of Châtellerault (-)
∞ Amalberga (?-1026)
|Grandparents||Geoffrey V of Anjou (1113-1152)
∞ 1128 Matilda of England (1102-1162)
|William X of Aquitaine (1099-1137)
∞ Aenor of Châtellerault (1103-1136)
|Parents||Henry II of England (1133-1189)
∞ 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)
John of England (1167-1216)