Golf (pronounced [ɡɒlf] ? ) is a ball game in which a small, hard ball with a club from the tee (tee) swept away in the direction of a flag marked with a dot (the hole ). The goal is to do brought the ball in as few strokes as possible into the hole. Golf is played on a golf course .
- 1 History of golf
- 2 Golf Course
- The game 3
- 4 Technology and Training
- 5 Equipment
- 6 Golf Terms
- 7 Golf Tourism
- 8 golf as Olympic sport
- 9 Famous golfers
- 10 Great golf tournaments
- 11 See also
- 12 Literature
- 13 External links
History of golf Edit
There were different kinds of sports are considered as the forerunner of the current golf game. In ancient writings of the Egyptians , Persians , Greeks and Romans are references to find different types of games resembling golf. Sports like hockey , polo and croquet might occur from golf.
It is certain, however, that golf is not (eg rugby ) sudden onset or invented. Golf has evolved as an evolved process that continues to this very day.
In the course of 2008, it was assumed that the earliest mention of colf a match that was played was on December 26th 1297 in Loenen . Through these colfpartij would murder Floris V , Count of Holland and Zeeland are commemorated. The party consisted of two teams of four people. Meanwhile convincingly demonstrated that this party can never actually played. [source?]
Already in 1360 justified the magistrates of the city of Brussels from an ordinance that playing with "colven" banned within the city walls. Too much damage was done and sometimes there were wounded. More cities followed suit, golf should be played outside the city walls. Haarlem was the first city where permission was given to cut this one area.
The more recent history of golf is long been a source of conflict between the Dutch and the Scots ; namely both claim to be the true birthplace of the current golf game.But there can not be determined with certainty where the sport originated.
In 1597 the crew played Willem Barents during hibernation on Nova Zembla 'colf', described in the journal of Gerrit de Veer :
- 3. The April washes moy claer again with a no win-income silent, do maeckten wy a colf far to daer co colven to ook Onse members what to maecken radder, sought to daer wy allerley resources. 
Around 1650 was in Holland played golf with 'Scottish cliques "(sticks), but exported at the beginning of the same century, large quantities balls Hollands were fabricated to Scotland. Because of these facts it is clear that more than three-and-a-half centuries ago in the Netherlands golf was played in any form.
Other forerunners of golf are "malic", a kind of miniature golf store where a ball beaten to a target instance, a stick or a stone and sjoele game where two parties attempted a ball in the direction of their camp (or village) . Names like the place and reduce the Mall in London testify to the popularity of the Mali game in the Middle Ages.
The great revolution in the Scottish golf game was playing with a small ball (instead of a large wooden ball at the precursors). This can save much more so to create a totally new type of game. This was possible because the Scots played on leftists. These are large grasslands on sandy soil behind the dunes, which grew short grass. This worthless grounds were publicly owned. The shepherds tended their sheep there and it remained grass extra short. The first wave of players cut a hole out and strike in a jam jar. They put a plume at gulls to indicate which hole was the goal.
The golf course [ edit ] Edit
Most courses consist of 9 or 18 holes, although the first courses had any number of holes. Today specially constructed 'championship courses. They want that job big tournaments attract and therefore the construction into account space for spectators, tent villages and parking.
- The hole
A hole consists mainly of a tee , the fairway and the green . Depending on the length of the hole must be in 3, 4 or 5 beats are played. The prescribed number of strokes is called the par of the hole. There are some courses that have a par 6, which are longer than 631 meters. On Golf & Country Club Regthuys was created a par 6 of 704 meters in 2010. There are now also golf courses landscaped with nine holes all having a par 3. Golf clubs also have a great golf course are that small courses usually called the practice holes of the par-3 course. Between the fairway and green is the green, which is shorter than the cut fairway but longer than the green. Left and right of the fairway is the rough. Besides the fairway is a strip cut grass (semi-rough), beyond the rough, where bushes, trees, heather, etc. occur, rather a golfer is not in the rough, because his ball may be lost or there are difficult playable .
- The tee is also known as the branch site. The player will usually put his ball on a wooden peg, this is also called a tee. When there was no (plastic or wood) tees were stood on the tee a teebox with sand, so the player could make a pile of sand to lay on his ball. If a teebox still stands today is mostly used as a wastebasket.
- The green is at the end of the hole. The green is a very short-mowed part of the track in which a well is that the hole is mentioned. In the hole state can see a flag so that the player from a distance where the hole is that day. English flag is called the pin, we speak about the pin position to indicate where the flag state (how many feet from the front of the green)
- The fairway is mowed part of the path between the tee and the green. Left and right of the fairway is less manicured semi-rough, beyond is the rough.
Each hole has natural obstacles to make the hole more difficult. There are mostly water lots, each track has a number of bunkers , the hole can make a turn, and can be height.
The game [ edit ] Edit
Depending on the length of the hole is determined how many strokes the hole should be played, called "par" (Professional Average Result). It is believed that a player needs two putts, a par 4 he hears so lie in two strokes on the green, a par 5, he may do three strokes over. At a par 3 exit onto the green hear come. A good player can play a job under par, or less than the predetermined number of strokes.
Length of hole measured from Messrs backtee as laid down in the EAEC rules:
- par 3 = 80-235 meters (85-250 yards)
- par 4 = 220-450 meters (240-490 yards)
- par 5 = 415-630 meters (450-690 yards)
- par 6 = more than 631 meters (691 yards)
Most 18-hole courses have four par-3 holes, four par-5 holes and 10 par-4 holes, and then the section of the track 72.
- Golf proficiency certificate (CFP)
On most courses in the Netherlands must have at least one player in possession of the handicap certificate .
An 18-hole course usually has a par of 70, 71 or 72. If a player is 24 strokes needs more than the par of the course, his disability is put at 24. When he walks around and 28 strokes need had, then he has played four strokes over his disability. If he plays against a player who has a 10 handicap, he may be 14 strokes more about. The scorecard is stated on the hole he gets a blow from the other player. In this way, the player can still win with 24 handicap player with handicap 10.
Any amateur player has a handicap . The lower the handicap, the better the player. Professionals do not have disabilities.
To save a ball player makes a golf swing. Depending on the club with which he strikes the ball will travel a certain distance. A player may 14 golf clubs (or sticks) with them each with its own purpose. Some people play with a half set. Advanced players have a driver with him to turn down as far as possible from the tee.
- a full stroke can be made with all clubs except the putter.
- the approach is the battle which the player the green aanspeelt high beaten little ball that rolls after landing.
- the chip is started which allows the player the green aanspeelt where the ball first layer goes through the air and then rolls on.
- the pitch is beaten with a pitching wedge, marked on the head with PW, usually used to chipping
- a bunker shot , made with a sand wedge, marked on the head with SW, is used to hit the ball out of a bunker
- a punch stroke can be beaten with clubs, the intention is that the ball stays low.
- a lobe stroke is usually performed by sandwich or lob wedge, here is the intention to play the ball as high as possible
- the wells is done with the aim to hit the ball into the hole. The ball does not have to lie on the green. If the ball is on the green, the player may play the ball with another club, but that rarely happens.
- The flop is a failed battle
- Rules of Golf
The golf rules laid down in the Rules of Golf as approved by the The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association .
- Game Variants
There are two game modes, namely the stroke play and match play :
- In stroke play, it comes with the least number of strokes (strokes) to take the job, possibly after setting off the handicap of the players.
- In matchplay play two players (or two pairs) against each other, hole by hole; whom the fewest strokes on a hole needs wins that hole. Who has won one hole more than the opponent is "one up", etc. (the opponent is "one down" etc.).; to tie one says that it is "all square".
Match play and do not necessarily have all the holes to be played, if one more hole lead counts than are remaining holes, the winner is fixed and the game is closed. When playing with two against two, it still two ways: either each player has his own ball (fourball), where only the best score of two on a hole count, either one ball for two players who alternately play (foursomes).
Most professional tournaments use stroke play, in which the scores of different rounds are added together to know the winner. At the big tournaments, this is done over a long weekend, Thursday through Sunday.Although the players into groups of two or three games, it is actually an individual competition: everyone plays to get the lowest score. In a four-day tournament is after the second round, some players off, usually around 60%, they will not have the cut achieved. So make the best of the weekend.
The score is kept in relation to the par of the job; The winner has the lowest score. If several players after the final round in the first place, so the same number of strokes after 4 days, are to play this a playoff; above, there are different systems in use. Usually the one who wins the hole, so the lowest of the two or more participants. If after the hole yet everyone has an equal score, will there be a hole, and so on until a winner comes out on top.
Technique and training [ edit ] Edit
Golf is a combination of exercise and mental exercise. Each of the numerous places where a ball may be, requires a proper assessment and approach. The assessment of the terrain, the distance and direction, the influence of the wind, and the choice of the force of the blow; are all factors of the 'secret of golf. " The two-handed grip on the stick and smooth stroke, which ends in typical outswing, shall continue as basic characteristics of the technique. The exit must be designed so that the ball travels a large distance. That might save a stroke. Experienced golfers say controls the left hand, the right turn. A major influence on the stroke are of course also the posture and the placement of the feet. The golf game can be learned at any age. How well that obviously depends on the time spent on it. A round of 18 holes takes 3 to 5 hours. The beginner should first take some lessons and train a lot. Each club has its own golf teacher - called pro - often in the clubhouse drives a pro shop, a small shop, where you can buy equipment and clothing. In a sporting these things are usually not available.
[Equipment edit ] Edit
A golf course.
The main equipment for the game of golf consists of:
- Golf balls : The average diameter of the golf ball is 27.04 inches and weighs about 46 grams. The aerodynamics of a golf ball is very interesting: the surface of the ball has many round, shallow pits (dimples) which is wholly against the feeling in significantly lower drag. This makes it possible for the ball to hit over 330 meters with a golf club.
Jack Nicklaus has balls designed with nubs on the outside, but which turned out to be 30% of the distance. He foresaw a market for cruise ships and at training locations, but it was a flop. Late 80s is given with a demonstration on Malieveld in The Hague .
- While playing a hole one should not replace his ball unless the rules allow that it may indeed.
- When a golf ball is lost during play of the hole, for example in the water off the job or somewhere in the woods, then the player can hit the ball again (two penalty strokes, called Hollyhock & distance) or at a specified by the rules place a new ball drop . This will be penalized with 1 penalty stroke.
- If you think the ball is broken, you can request permission from the actor to pick up the ball and to see. This sometimes occurs after the ball is beaten out of a bunker. If the ball is broken (unfit for play), he may be replaced without penalty.
- One may begin on each hole with a new ball. One must notify the marker is brought into play a new ball (brand and number report).
Four irons and a putter
- Golf clubs (sticks): there is a wide range of clubs for striking various lengths and conditions on the golf course. Golf rules state that a player may take up to 14 clubs in his bag, he determines the composition itself:
- driver ("wood 1"): the longest club with the least inclination ("loft" from 9 ° to 10 °). This club is designed to repel them from the tee (tee shot) and this club the maximum achievable distance can be achieved.
- Wooden 3,5,7 and / or 9 (" Fairway woods "): originally like the driver with a wood club head, the presence of metal such as titanium . These clubs are shorter than the driver and have a slanted interface (large loft), so that the ball gets a higher flight and falls short. Woods are made for the long shots and less accuracy. In the bag the heads are protected by a headcover (kind of thick cover.) YE Yang has in his bag seven clubs with a headcover.
- Hybrid clubs long irons can (iron 1 to 4) and replace the woods 5-7-9. The advantage of this club is that it has the precision of irons and gives the distance of a wood.
- Irons : These clubs are made for shorter but more accurate shots. The different "irons" are numbered from 3 / 9. The number indicates how long the club is and how much "loft" is the interface of the club; the higher the number, the shorter the club and the more loft the club level. The more "loft" higher (and less far) the ball will fly and how far it will roll less. In a 3 iron forms the club plane at an angle of 21 ° with the vertical; at an iron 9 is the angle 43 °. So one can with the same swing by the correct choice of a club decide how far they will strike. Between each track, the difference in distance is approximately 9 meters.
- different wedges: Previously, players had only a PW and SW with him, nowadays often considered a third wedge. The wedges all have a different bounce, the negative angle (curvature) on the bottom of the clubface.
- pitching wedge (PW): a club with a "loft" of 47 ° or 48 °, are used to be able to play the ball from near the green as close as possible to the hole.
- gap wedge (GW): a wedge that is in between the PW and SW.
- sand wedge (SW): a wedge with a loft of 56 degrees, specially used to hit the ball out of the bunker, but also used for short distances.
- lob wedge (LW): a wedge with an extreme tilt up to 65 °, especially for difficult situations where an extra high trajectory is required.
- putter , the club used to play on the green. The interface is practically vertical, because the ball must be rolled over the green. There is a large variety in putters, both in length of the shaft as in the club head.
- headcovers: headcovers are protective covers that you slide across it over the head of a golf club. Golf clubs are precision instruments and duration of price, so there are head covers designed to protect it.
It was once pulled an old sock on the golf club back to protect it. Nowadays, there is available a wide range of styles, still the tradition is maintained, so there are still retro socks in a modern design. So there is more than the standard headcover that comes with the purchase of a club.
The choice in styles keeps it interesting and personal. It provides insight into the personality of a golfer, his or her hobbies, or the style in which the players to express themselves in a fun and trendy, yet practical way. Headcovers are often made of rubber, neoprene and leather, among other materials. The selection is really a matter of choice and personal preference. There are headcovers available for almost any personality or interest.
- T : This is a wooden or plastic peg which is inserted into the ground in order to place it on the golf ball when it turns off at the beginning of a hole. Only during the turn one may use a tee.
- Marker : If the ball is on the green may be picked up and cleaned. The player must use a marker to indicate the location where the ball was subsequently so that the ball can be restored to the same place. The marker is placed just behind the ball in the line of the hole. The marker is a small plastic / iron round, is used sometimes a coin.
- Pitchfork : This is a small fork to restore the pitch marks (dimples) on the green. If a ball lands on the green leaves this an impression.
- Rule booklet each player must have with them.
- Ballpoint pen to write on the score. Avoid using a pencil, because if the card gets wet, blurs the text.
- Attire : The main thing is that clothing is comfortable and gives enough freedom of movement. In addition, most clubs have a dress code. These jobs are jeans and T-shirts usually not allowed. A polo shirt is the most common with golf.
- golf shoes must ensure that the player has a stable position in the store, even if the grass is damp and slippery. Golf Shoes therefore are usually equipped with spikes or studs. Older golf shoes have iron spikes, modern golf shoes have soft spikes. The spikes can be replaced because they are removable. Nodules are a part of the sole. Many amateur players wear shoes with studs, because it gives enough for their sturdiness and most clubhouses it-entry. Shoes with spikes used by better players and by almost all professionals. On the European PGA Tour only players with spikes on the green, caddies and recorders with no spikes.
- golf glove : especially for golf gloves have been made in order to better hold the golf club and to prevent blisters occur on the hands.
- raincoat and umbrella
- jack: used to wear more sweaters players like about each other when it was cold, instead of a stiff jacket, but today there are thin jackets are windproof and waterproof.
Golf terms [ edit ] Edit
The following terms are heard often in golf: Hole in one - Albatross - Eagle - Birdie - Par - Bogey - Double Bogey - Caddie - Handicap
See also golf terminology for a glossary of many golf terms.
Golf Tourism [ edit ] Edit
Golf tourism is a form of tourism where the golf central. This market is still growing, especially in countries in Europe .
Golf as Olympic sport [ edit ] Edit
Golf has twice been on the program of the Summer Olympic Games, first in 1900 and most recently in 1904. The International Olympic Committee decided in October 2009 that the sport after more than a century of absence will return to the Olympic Summer Games program in 2016 and 2020. 
Known golfers [ edit ] Edit
- International golfers
- Dutch golfers
Netherlands has around 2008 330.000 golfers and offers 186 associations with private property.
Major golf tournaments [ edit ] Edit
|Four Majors (chronological)|
|Kraft Nabisco Championship||United States||The Masters||United States|
|US Women's Open||United States||US Open||United States|
|Women's British Open||United Kingdom||The Open Championship||United Kingdom|
|LPGA Championship||United States||PGA Championship||United States|
|United States versus Europe|
|Solheim Cup||variable||Ryder Cup||variable|
|World Matchplay||since 2009 in Spain|
|Ladies English Open||variable||Dutch Open||variable|
See also Edit
- Golf Variant
- Michael Flannery and Richard Leech - Golf through the ages, six hundred years or golfing art.
- CAM van Woerden - Flasks , the plaisier to diver tar sig in it. Edition of Shank Club Utrecht St. Eloyen Hospital "in collaboration with the Foundation Publications Former Utrecht.
- Golf hundred years in the Netherlands - Publisher / year: Bosch en Duin 1994
- Golf in the Netherlands (all courses in the Netherlands connected with the NGF) - Publisher / 2011: Solo Golf
- GOLFjournaal - Publisher / year: Sanoma