Ernest Miller Hemingway (Oak Park, Illinois1899 – July 21, Ketchum (Idaho)July 2, 1961) was an American writer and journalist who in 1953 won the Pulitzer Prize (literature) with The Old Man and The Sea and in 1954 was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature . Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s. His sober writing style that has arisen from the journalism stood in stark contrast to its image of adventurer and his turbulent personal life and would be a great influence on the modern American and European prose. During his final years he suffered from severe depression and when he shot himself on July 2, 1961 by his head with his favorite gun, he left three children: one son, John, with his first wife Hadley Richardson and two sons, Patrick and Gregory, with his second wife Pauline Pfeiffer.His literary legacy is of lasting value, which, among other things, illustrated by the fact that its most important works have been never out of print.


[hide]*1 life and work

Life and work[Edit]Edit


[1]Hemingway's birthplace in Oak Park.

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at 8 in the morning on 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a gynecologistand his mother, Grace Hall, was a music teacher and former Executive artist who then singing and gave music lessons to children from the neighborhood. Both were well educated and highly respected within the conservative community of Oak Park. After their marriage Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived briefly with Graces father Ernest Hall, which also would be the namesake of their first son. Ernest Hemingway would Later say that he hated his first name, to which he had linked with "" the naive, even foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest. [2Hemingway had five brothers and sisters. Marcelline (1898) was his elder sister and after him were Ursula (1902), Madelaine (1904), Carol (1911) and Leicester (1915) born. Eventually the family moved to a House with seven rooms in a respectable neighborhood, with a music studio for Grace and a medical Office for Clarence.

[2]Hemingway's picture of the family in 1905; from left: Marcelline, Madelaine, Clarence, Grace, Ursula and Ernest

Grace dressed the only boy of the family as a girl, something that is not so unusual at the time and in her environment. So they cut his hair only when he was six years old. The mother of the young Ernest went here very far in and called her boy for example "Dutch dolly".Biographers suggest that this strange relationship Hemingway has scarred for life. Loaded the erotic motif of the cutting the hair of a boy would later in Hemingways stories crop up as several times in The Garden of Eden. It is also striking that in a number of stories men who for one reason or another have become impotent and desperately trying to regain their masculinity, such as the dying writer in The Snows of Kilimanjaro. To his friends, including against John Dos Passos, Hemingway said as an adult that he hated his mother and if he had over her, he talked about "that bitch". His nephew John Sanford, Marcellines son and now an academic researcher, however, thinks otherwise. He said in an interview that Hemingways nasty words about his mother only a ' cover-up ' were for his deep love for her, and a consequence of its bitterness because they are the topics where he wrote about but nothing found. [3]

Hemingways father Clarence had values of his colonial ancestors came from a Congregational and forbade dancing, drinking, gambling and smoking. These heavy, broad-shouldered man stopped unlike his wife stuck to a strict discipline and beat Ernest if necessary, even with the leather belt with which he his razor drag. The motif of the unfeeling doctor popped up in one of Hemingways earliest stories, The Doctor and The doctor's Wife. In it come between the doctor and his dialogues for woman with whom Hemingway memories seems to pick up on actual conversations that had taken place between his parents.

Hemingways mother often played concerts in and around the village. Ernest didn't have much aptitude for music, but at the urging of his mother, he learned to play cello . That took care of a lot of tensions, already gave the music lessons were useful that he later turned out for his writing. The family owned a summer home called Windemere on Walloon Lake, ' near PetoskeyMichigan, where he learned his father from his fourth year of hunting, fishing and camping in the Woods and Lakes of Northern Michigan. It was then that he got a passion for nature and life in remote, isolated areas.

From 1913 to 1917 Hemingway went to the Oak Park and River Forest High School, where he participated in boxingAthleticsfootballand water polo . He excelled in English and played in the school Orchestra for two years with its sister Marcelline. He followed a journalismcourse, taught by Fannie Biggs, who led the class "as if it was a newspaper company". The better writers in the classroom The Trapeze, published articles in the school newspaper. Both Hemingway as Marcelline in The Trapeze pieces submitted. Hemingways first piece, published in January 1916, went over the local action of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He continued to contribute to the Trapeze and Tabula (school newspaper and Yearbook), where he imitated the language of the sports editors and wrote under the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr. -a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune.

Ernests parents wanted that he would go to College. Especially his father had hoped his son would follow in his footsteps by first went to Oberlin College in Ohio and then to medical school to become a doctor. At one point has apparently resolved to Hemingway to graduate in journalism at the University of Illinois. In the autumn of 1917, however, he decided to take the job to his uncle Tyler Hemingway had arranged for him on theThe Kansas City Starnewspaper. Although he only spent several months later, he relied on the style guide of the Star "as the basis for his writing: use short sentences; Use a short first paragraph; Use powerful English; Be positive, not negative... "[4]

1917-1918: volunteer for the Red Cross[Edit]Edit

[3]Ernest Hemingway in Milan, recovering from his injuries (1918).[4]Agnes von Kurowsky to Milan in 1918

Up to 1917 was the United States managed to get out of the first world war in april 1917, but sided with itself to the side of the allies to fight the Germans and Austrians.Hemingway wanted to engage, but was refused because of a bad left eye. When in the winter of 1917 it was campaigning to American Red Cross volunteers to recruit who wanted to drive, on the Italian front Hemingway went there with ambulances enthusiastically to in. Later he lied about this time, and claimed to have fought for the Italian army. In reality he only spent three weeks as an ambulance driver in Italyby. When he arrived in Europe he went first to Paris, Hemingway was commissioned at the beginning of June to go to Milan to go.

On the day of his arrival he immediately got his baptism of fire in an ammunition depot explodes: he had to mutilated bodies and body parts to bring a makeshift mortuary . Two days later he was taken to an ambulance unit in the town of Schio sent, where he went to work as an ambulance driver. On July 8, 1918, until several weeks after his arrival, he became to his leg injured by shrapnel, when he chocolate and cigarettes to Italian soldiers would hand out along the river Piave . According to Ted Baquirel (another ambulance driver), who wrote a letter to Hemingways father, Hemingway got more than 200 shards in his legs, but failed despite these injuries still in to another wounded soldier to bring to the first-aid station . En route, he was again in his legs affected by different machine gun bullets. For this Act of self-sacrifice he later received the Italian Silver medal for Military Prowess. The injury to his right knee was so severe that he feared that the leg would have to be amputated. Recovering from his injuries in a hospital in Milan, Hemingway was in love with Agnes von Kurowsky, a well trained American nurse who is eight years older than he. Hemingway would this romance later in his novel A Farewell to Arms process.

During his service as a Red Cross ambulance driver was Hemingway friends with Captain Jim Gamble. This offered him to to pay for a joint tour of Europe which would last a year, but Agnes wanted to marry and insisted, that Hemingway returned to the us to get a job. On March 7, 1919 they betrothed to Agnes wrote him, however, that an Italian officer.

1919-1921: Toronto and Chicago[Edit]Edit

[5]Hemmingway with his 1st wifeHadley Richardson in 1922 to Chamby

When Hemingway returned from Italy in January of 1919 he found Oak Park boring compared to the war adventure, the beauty of foreign countries and the polite romance with Agnes von Kurowsky. He was nineteen years old, but the war had made him for his precocious age. His parents never understood well what their son had experienced. Shortly after his homecoming, they began to put pressure on him to get a job or to continue his education, but Hemingway could not muster more interest for something like that. Of the $ 1000 insurance payments received for his war wounds he could almost a year out of work life. He lived in the House of his parents and spent his time reading in the library or at home. He spoke small social organizations about his oorlogshelden deeds and was often seen in his Red Cross uniform, walking through the city.

In september 1919 he pulled together with high school friends on a fishing and camping trip to the hinterland of Upper Peninsula Michigan's ' '. This trip became the inspiration for his short story " Big Two-Hearted River, in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams the loneliness of the inviolate nature look up to after returning from the war to wind down.

When he gave a lecture in the Petoskey public library in Michigan, he was approached by Harriett Connable, the wife of an Executive for the company of the Woolworthsstore chain in Toronto. She was impressed with his athletic appearance, intelligence and self-confidence and suggested to her physically weak for Hemingway, son to take him under his wing and acquainted with the joys of physical activities. So he paid was supervisor of the young Ralph Connable, earning him enough time to dedicate to writing gave remain. Later that year he started as a freelancer and a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly. He returned the following June and then moved back to Michigan in september 1920 to Chicago, where he was living with friends and stories continued to send it to the Toronto Star.

Hemingway worked In Chicago as an editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met the writer Sherwood Anderson . He made in Chicago also introduced to Hadley Richardson, who is from St. Louis came to visit the sister of Hemingways roommate. Hemingway was immediately in love with her. Later he would say about this first meeting: "I knew she was the girl that I was getting married." Hadley was red-haired, very caring and eight years older than Hemingway. Some biographers believe that Hadley reminded him to Agnes, but Hadley, who was brought up by an overprotective mother, gave a much less mature impression. After a months long correspondence the couple decided to get married and to travel to Europe. They wanted to first visit Rome , but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to choose, to Paris . They were married on september 3, 1921. Two months later, Hemingway hired as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star and the couple went to Paris. At this point in his life seemed to have reached what he everything Hemingway with Agnes would have liked: the love of a beautiful woman, a comfortable income and an adventurous life in Europe.

1922-1927: Paris[Edit]Edit

[6]Ernest Hemingway in the summer of 1925 in a cafe in Pamplona, in the company of the people he portrayed in his novel "The Sun Also Rises". From left to right, sitting: Hemingway, Harold Loeb, Lady Duff Twysden, Hadley, Don Stewart and Pat Guthrie.

For the Hemingways left to France, Sherwood Anderson had given a letter of introduction for his friend Ernest literary expatriates that Hemingway in contact was hoping to come. The couple involved in a poor Parisian neighborhood for an apartment in the rue Cardinal Lemoine 74. Hemingway then made use of his letter to access the salon of Gertrude Stein and Ezra Poundaround the literary circle.That way he soon came in contact with Wyndham LewisJames Joyce Sylvia Beach, and Ford Madox Ford. Hemingway did his best to impress his new friends, not least because he realized that they could help him in delivering on his literary ambitions. He worked hard and hired a special room in the rue Descartes 39 to be able to write every morning there undisturbed. It was there that he learned to make herself a tight work schedule and not stopping for a number of pages had finished and he knew exactly where he should write about the next morning.

[7]Gertrude Stein with John ("Jack") toParis in 1924, Hemingway

During his first 20 months in Paris sent Hemingway 88 stories on to the Toronto Star. In order to be able to report back on the European political and military events he traveled ceaselessly by train. In particular the Greco-Turkish war earned him a lot of material, and he wrote sharp vignettes about the refugees and fire platoons which he had seen. In addition, he bowed himself in his pieces also on cultural topics, bullfighting, tuna fishing, skiing, bobsleigh, and so on. In december 1922 Hemingway lived for the Toronto Star at an International Conference in the Swiss Lausanne. He asked Hadley in a letter to to come to him and to bring his manuscripts. When she arrived by train from Paris, she confessed tearfully that the suitcase with the manuscripts of his stories was lost. Hemingway was crushed by the news. The damaged for good relationship with Hadley and he later this episode in his life evoke the encounter in A Moveable Feast .

Hemingway began during the 1920s gradually to publish his poems in The Double Dealer and in other small but important European literary magazines such as Poetry and Der Querschnitt. In 1923, its first small book published with stories and poems: Three Stories and Ten Poems. The stories in this volume are written according to Hemingways "iceberg theory": by omitting things in a story to make it stronger (see also "Kill your darlings"). Hadley was pregnant In January of that year. It prevented Hemingway not to in the summer to the Spanish city of Pamplona with her visit and to attend the San Fermínfeesten . Hemingway was fascinated by bullfighting and called it not a sport, but a tragedy in which the bull was doomed to die. They went there not only to watch bullfights : Hemingway took himself participated in the dangerous Bull run through the streets of the city and held a lifetime fascination with bullfighting to about. He wrote five vignettes about the corrida de torros and more extensive in later went on these experiences in The Sun Also Risesand Death in the Afternoon. In June 1925, they released a group of American and British expatriates to Pamplona: Hemingways childhood friend Bill Smith, Stewart, Lady Duff Twysden (which just was divorced), her lover Pat Guthrie, and Harold Loeb. A few days after the Fiesta, on his birthday (21 July), Hemingway began writing to Fiesta (later The Sun Also Rises), which he completed in eight weeks. [5the manuscript in april 1926 reached his New York Publisher and after correcting the trial in Paris Hemingway delivered in August 1926 on Scribner's, which published the novel in October of that year.It meant a turning point in his writing career: until then had Hemingway himself in his fiction namely dealt almost exclusively with short stories. Its publisher as well as his mentor had f. Scott Fitzgerald short stories, however, told that with him not earn much fell, and that novels sold well. Hemingway had followed their advice, and after a false start to a novel around to write his character Nick Adams , The Sun Also Rises would make him known as a novelist.

With a view to the birth of their child moved the few of their Parisian Garret to Toronto. Ernest continued to work for the Toronto Daily Star, but after the exciting life in Paris he could hard earthen in Toronto. In addition, the new boss of this newspaper showed him every day he Hemingway work longer and obligated to report on trivial things. The straw that broke the camel's back was the scolding that Hemingway from his boss because he got to the hospital to give birth, grabbling where Hadley had lain instead of his first piece for the newspaper to get in. The raging Hemingway took at once resigned and went to work at the Toronto Star Weekly . A few months after the birth of their son, John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway (call sign "Jack") traveled the young family on board a ship to France to take back to Hemingways artistic ambitions.

Shortly after his return in Paris Hemingway got a job at a new literary magazine, entitled The Transatlantic Review. As a result, he immediately sat in the center of the literary and artistic life on the left bank of theSeine. Ezra Pound had him by the Publisher, Ford Madox Ford, featured as "the finest prose stylist in the world". As an editor, in addition to his own short stories Hemingway published there, also the first chapters ofGertrude Steins book The Making of Americans, as well as excerpts from James Joyces Work in Progress (that later led to Finnegans Wake). In this period, 1925-1929, perfected Hemingway would make him the style further renowned d.

[8]Ernest and Pauline Hemingway, Paris, 1927

Hemingways marriage to Hadley deteriorated. In the spring of 1926, Hadley aware of his affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, an American journalist who worked for Vogue in Paris. In november she asked a divorce, which was officially in January 1927. They divided their possessions and Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer in May of that same year.

The publication of The Sun Also Rises Hemingway brought immediate success. He had achieved what he had always wanted-literary fame-but afterwards saw that he would have had to pay a price for there as well. He was convinced that the success of the turbulent lifestyle of expatriates who he described in his novel (' life is a celebration ') also had to lead themselves. This looking back he said later in his memoirs: "That had to be a party every day seemed to me a great discovery ... Me when she said, ' it's great, Ernest. Really, it's great. ' You may not know what it does to you. I wagged my tail of pleasure and dipped me at the bottom of the fiëstaconcept of life. " [6]

Pauline soon became pregnant, and shortly thereafter published a second collection of short stories Hemingway, Men without Women. The newlyweds set off on honeymoon to the South of France and made a tour of various European cities. Eventually they ended up in Kansas City where Pauline in June gave birth to Hemingways second son, Patrick.Hemingway was in Paris started A Farewell to Arms, it had continued to work in Key WestPiggott and Kansas City and completed the manuscript in August 1928 in Wyoming, where he was drawn to go with a friend.

1928-1936: Key West and the Caribbean[Edit]Edit

[9]Ernest Hemingway House in Key West[10]Hemingway and Henry Slater with aMarlin on the Bahamas in 1935[11]Ernest Hemingway on safari, 1934.

In 1928, Hemingway and Pauline moved to Key West in Florida. There Hemingway learned the tropics and deep sea fishing and these experiences would later inspire him to write the Novella the old man and the sea, with which he won the Pulitzer Prize . The decor might all be wonderful, Hemingway suffered very under the decision he had taken to Hadley and to leave his child and together with his depressions also increased his alcohol consumption in Key West, where he spent a lot of time in Sloppy Joe's bar. Yet hisalcoholism worsened after his father committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. Hemingway was deeply touched by the way in which his father had died and was from suicide than a more prominent theme in his books.

His novel A Farewell to Arms was published at the end of 1929 and received mostly favorable reviews. The story is about an American army officer who deserts and in first world war flight with a British nurse. Of the money he earned with this book he put a portion aside in a Fund for his mother.

In March 1930 he began planning his next book, about bullfighting, that later as Death in the Afternoon would be published. In april 1931 bought the Hemingways the Ernest Hemingway House in Key West and on 12 november gave birth to Pauline with a caesarean section of her son Gregory. The doctors warned her that another child could cost her life. The Catholic use birth control resources and Pauline did not want any Hemingway would later blame the failure of this marriage to the effect that her decision had on their sex life.

To Have and Have Not, a novel that takes place during the great depression in the u.s., grew out of a short story where Hemingway had begun in 1933. Of the book were published in 1937 in the first five months 38000 copies sold and it brought Hemingway on the cover of Time Magazine. Funded by Paulines wealthy uncle Gus, the end of 1933 and early 1934 the Hemingways undertook a safari in Africa. This trip was the inspiration for two of Hemingways best short stories: The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber. For two and a half years, from 1932, Hemingway wrote essays for the newly established and successful Dutch glossy men's Magazine Esquire. Many of these essays were later reprinted in By-Line: Ernest Hemingway. Of the money he had earned with writing articles at the magazine he bought in 1934 a fishing boat, which he baptized "Pilar".

Mid thirties did a new autobiographical theme made its appearance in Hemingways work: that of the writer who tries to retain his talent under the pressure of money, success and the lure of sex. This theme is reflected in the listed The Snows of Kilimanjaro from 1936, and on a allegorical way in The Old Man and The Sea (1952).

About 1935 found more and more readers and critics that the work of Hemingways from his early period still was worth it, but that he seemed to be its peak about now. Its image of the Bon Vivant and machismo that rise boldly from his stories spoke no longer had the same effect on the readers. They also took offense to his big game hunting in Africa and found the books he wrote about that tasteless and even boring. So said one of the critics, Edmund Wilson, that Hemingway "had written the only book in which Africa and the animals seem to be boring." [7however, The Hemingway Spanish civil war would bring back in interest.

1937-1943: Spanish civil war, and Cuba[Edit]Edit

[12]Hemingway in the middle between left the Dutch Communist filmmakerJoris Ivens and right the German Chief of staff Ludwig Renn of the International Brigades during the Spanish civil war[13]Hemingway and his third wife,Martha Gellhorn, with General Yu Hanmou in China (Chongqing, 1941)

The Spanish civil war lasted from July 17, 1936 to 1 april 1939 and was a conflict between the Republicans, who remained faithful to the existing Spanish Republic and theNationalists, a group of military putschists led by Emilio Mola and after his death of General Francisco Franco. In 1936, North American Newspaper Alliance, one of the bignews agencies which articles to the newspapers to go to Spain, Hemingway as a reporter and to report on that civil war. Hemingway was. Joris Ivens, film maker, asked a Dutch Communist Hemingway to assist him in making a documentary about the war. Hemingway wrote the commentary on the film and it showed that he was sympathetic to the Republican cause. The film was titled The Spanish Earth ("Spanish Earth") and Orson Welles would deliver the voice over , but in the end it was Hemingway himself who accounted for this.

Hemingway In Spain began a relationship with Martha Gellhorn, a 28-year-old journalist who worked for The New Republic and Paris Vogue and also had published a novel and a collection of short stories. They had first met each other in 1936 in a bar in Key West and now they were staying in the same hotel on the same floor. Initially she resists his advances. However, during a bombardment they stood in the same room locked up and that brought them closer together. They fell in love and remained in Spain until 1939.

In October 1937 Hemingway began writing The Fifth Column, his only play, which a year later would be published. In it, the character Dorothy Bridges came for an unfriendly caricature of Martha Gellhorn. In 1939 was Hemingway in Havana, where he in February began to write to For Whom the Bell Tolls. Because Pauline resisted themselves against a divorce, could marry only in 1940 Hemingway with Martha Gellhorn. That year also came from For Whom the Bell Tolls and the book was a great success: the first six months were already half a million copies sold. In the same period that he worked to this novel, Hemingway was also working on two other writing projects: Islands in the Streamand The Garden of Eden, both of which would appear only posthumously .

With his new wife drew Hemingway in 1941 to China to join her articles on the Sino-Japanese war to write. When they run out of their experiences returned to Cuba, Hemingway began his boat Pilar into a kind of destroyer. Together with his friends he made in the Pilar long trips in Cuban waters, looking for German submarines. Who felt they did not and they spent their time than on with fishing and drinking. During a small ceremony in June 1947 to the u.s. Embassy in Cuba, Hemingway would nevertheless be awarded a "Bronze Starfor his merit as a war correspondent and move themselves freely in combat zones for the under fire, in order to be able to form an accurate picture of the conditions there. The only one that Hemingway apparently could not impress with his patriotism and swagger was Martha, who picked up her bags and left only to Europe. Not until the spring of 1944 Hemingway traveled down to London, where he wanted to follow the war up close as a correspondent.

1944-1947: World War II and Europe[Edit]Edit

[14]Hemingway with Colonel ' Buck 'Charles t. Lanham during the battle of the Hürtgenwald in 1944. Shortly afterwards he was recorded with pneumonia.

Hemingway arrived In London, began to write articles about the air battles and bombing. He drank a lot and got involved in a heavy car accident. Martha visited him in the hospital. They minimized his injuries and criticized him because he had been involved in a drunk traffic accident. Hemingway, who really seriously injured was, felt very stripped by her cool and sharp response. Maintain their relationship would not be long. In London Mary Welsh Hemingway learned namely common, a correspondent of Time magazinethat him during his recovery he donated to the attention and care seemed to desire. The third time that they met, Hemingway did its already a marriage proposal. The wedding took place in 1946.

Hemingway was present at the Normandy landings on d-day, although he by the army command had to remain on a landing craft . In late July he joined the 22nd infantry regiment commanded by Col. Charles ' Buck ' Lanham, that was on its way to Paris. He would also have taken the lead of a group of resistance fighters, including veterans from the Spanish civil war, with which he said it freed the Hôtel Ritz Paris, which however was not true. By leading an armed group resistance fighters had violated the Geneva Convention , however, Hemingway. As a journalist it was expressly forbidden him to take part in military actions. Yet he escaped conviction by claiming he only had given advice. The liberation of the Ritz hotel was celebrated the following week, and then traveled to Northern France to Hemingway back at his friend General Buck Lanham and the 22nd infantry regiment of the allies to join.

Later, he made some of the heaviest fighting during the battle of the Huertgen forest and several times narrowly escaped according to friends to death. In december 1944 he was seriously ill, got high fever and had to be taken up with pneumonia at the beginning of the battle of the bulge. For his efforts and talent to the readers a vivid picture of what was going on at the front, he was nominated for a Bronze Star .

Hemingway returned to USA in March 1946 with the intention to write a great war novel, but it never materialized. The only book with some length that he would produce about the second world war was Across the River and Into the Trees, that in 1950 to Scribner's was issued.

1948-1961: Cuba, Nobel Prize[Edit]Edit

[15]Hemingway at his home Finca Vigíain Cuba in 1953[16]Hemingway and his fourth wife Mary Welsh on safari in Kenya in 1953/1954[17]Hemingway in 1954 in Kenya with his burnt hand

After the war, Hemingway stayed with Mary a while in Torcello Venice and before returning to his home in Cuba. In Venice he was fallen in love with a negentienjarig girl,Adriana Ivancich, which gave him inspiration for his story Across the River and Into the Trees on a retired Brigadier in Venice and his relationship with a much younger woman he calls his daughter. Adriana designed the cover and they later designed the cover for The Old Man and The Sea. This happened while Mary was hospitalized with a broken ankle after a skiongeval. When the book was published by Scribner's in 1950, had critics for the sentimental story. Hemingway responded ironically: "Surely they can say anything that nothing happens in Across the River; all that happens is the defense of the lower reaches of the Piave, the break-through in Normandy, the intake of Paris ... plus a guy who loves a girl and dies. " And also: "the book starts slowly and then accelerates until it becomes unbearable. I bring emotion until they becomes unbearable and then we reduce what, so that we do not provide oxygen tents for the readers. " Hurt by the negative reactions, took Hemingway short story for themselves with a strong hit back: a simple, mythical story about an old man and a fish in the critics praised him this time. heaven. Hemingway in 1952 received the Pulitzer Prize for fiction for The Old Man and The Sea. The Novella first appeared in Life magazine with five million copies sold and also the book did well.

1954 was a bad year for the Hemingways. In January 1954, during a journey through Africa, they were twice the victim of a plane crash. On January 21, when their chartered Cessna crashed down the pilot wanted to dodge a flight birds above the Murchison Falls, and the next day they took another plane to go to a hospital in Entebbe to fly and this exploded on departure. Hemingway loved here according to his biographer Baker a heavy concussion, damage to spineliverkidney and spleen, and first-degree burns to the face and arms about. [8Restoring in his hotel room in Entebbe, Hemingway had the pleasure to read his own obituary notices in the newspapers. Against my better judgement he undertook a few weeks later, a fishing trip with Mary and Patrick, and when he wanted to help put out a fire near their camp, he fell by his bad condition in the fire and kept there even more burns to about than he already had. [9Hemingway would never quite recover from these accidents. The pain would carry the rest of his life and his depressions were worse.

In October of the same year, Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for literature "for his mastery in the art of telling, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and The Sea and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style." He said in the press that Carl SandburgIsak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson deserved the award more, but that the money was welcome. Because he has not yet been sufficiently recovered from his air accidents and the forest fire to take the price person in Stockholm, he let his acceptance speech for reading. Here's an excerpt, in which he talks about life as a writer:

"Writing, at its best, is a lonely life. Organizations for writers palliate the writer's loneliness but I doubt if they improve his writing. He grows in public stature as he sheds his loneliness and often his work deteriorates. For he does his work alone and if he is a good enough writer he must face eternity, or the lack of it, each day"

"Writing, at its best, is a lonely life. Organizations for writers soften the solitude of the writer, but I have doubts whether they do him better writing. He gets more public respect as he afschudt his solitude but often than his work backwards. After all, he works alone and if he is a good writer is he must the eternity or lack of it face every day. "

The prize money of $ 35000 enabled him to pay off part of his debts, and the gold medal he saved some time in a secret jewelry tray in his home Finca Vigía, Cuba's Patron Saint before they donate to La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre to keep in the Basilica of the shrine dedicated to her. [10]

The period after winning the Nobel Prize was very busy and stressful for Hemingway, who is constantly suffering from are rugkwetsuur and barely came to write by the many visitors who the winner at home ("Finca Vigía") wanted to interview. When he was invited on the set of The Old Man and The Sea, he was annoyed to the cast of the film.Spencer Tracy as he found too thick and civil, and the kid who had been chosen for the role of Manolo he called a cross between a tadpole with the American writer Anita Loos.[11his manuscript with African stories remained untouched by all the fuss, and Hemingway was limited to writing articles for magazines. He spent the summer of 1956 with writing short stories as A Room on the Garden Side (about the liberation of the Ritz-hotel) and The Cross Roads, in which the narrator and his group fleeing Germans in France killing and robbing that are on the road to Aachen in 1944. In August of that year realized that Hemingway of writing not much more rightly would come and started a new trip to Europe to plan. Mary's anemia was also worsened and Hemingway thought a different climate would do her good. After a few weeks at New-York oceaanlijner they left with the French in Île-de-France. A highlight on that journey that brought them through several European countries, was for Hemingway the four days with bullfighting feriaZaragoza. Hemingways health however, deteriorated during the cruise , that he boarded the Île-de-France had to be treated for his malfunctioning liver, a high blood pressureand high cholesterol levels.

After Fidel Castro came to power in 1959, Ernest and Mary Hemingway left their home in Cuba and moved to Ketchum, in Idaho. There the writer spent the last years of his life by, mines and unexploded ordnance continued constantly with serious health problems.

End Of Life[Edit]Edit

[18]Hemingway Memorial above Trail Creek in Sun Valley

On his 60th saw Hemingway there decrepit and old. He drank more than ever and suffered from bouts of manic bursts followed by deep depressions. On 2 July 1961 he was as usual got up early, had dressed up, but proceeded not to his writing room of his house in Idaho where his typewriter was. Instead, he got his favorite double barrel shotgunBoss & co. from the Armory in the basement, loaded it with two bullets from heavy calibre and went upstairs in the hall, where he crossed over into his mouth and pulled the trigger. [12he was not the only one in his family who committed suicide. His father (Clarence), brother (Leicester), sister (Ursula) and his granddaughter Margaux came to their end in the same way. Hemingway was given a Catholic funeral, because the the Church ruled that he is not in his right mind must have been at the time of his suicide. He was buried in Ketchum.

About Ernest Hemingway's suicide, there are several theories. The most common theory is that he was involved in a deep depression , in the knowledge that his literary heyday for good behind the back layers. Writing attacked him physically difficult after the many traumas that he had sustained in accidents. To the same genetic blood disorder suffered perhaps Hemingway (hemochromatosis) like his father, to which the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical decline. Different doctors had urged him to stop drinking, but Hemingway had ignored this advice. Several times, he was treated with electroshock in the Mayo Clinic Minnesota's, but the depression continued to come back. After these treatments started Hemingway symptoms of dementia and paranoia to be faulty. One of those delusions was that the FBI had him follow him and coined it. However, there is also another theory that Hemingways allegations seriously. So is his friend A.E. Hotchner, a close associate for 13 years, convinced that Hemingway since the forties in the holes was held by the FBI, because of his contacts and ties with Cuba, what would emerge from the release of an FBI file in 1983. Hemingway was the year for his suicide at the age of 61, under pressure from the US authorities returned from Cuba to America. During a meeting with Hotchner told the FBI in 1960 Hemingway how did pursue him and had him bugged. His bank account was traced, intercepted his phone tapped and his post regularly, and sometimes, when he sat in a bar, he recognized FBI agents. Hotchner also tells, how Hemingway called him from his hospital room with the announcement that microphones were placed in his room and the phone was bugged. [13]

His testament at date 15 september 1955 be Mary Hemingway as execution creditor for all his property of any kind, literary included. Mary came into the possession of all his letters and made use of its right to most requests for the next fifteen years to stop its publication, even though many originals in the possession of individuals and institutions, and had the writer himself during his lifetime requests in that direction regularly met. [14In the authorized biography of 1969 by Carlos Baker were a hundred letters from Hemingway included.

Themes and writing style[Edit]Edit

[19]Ernest Hemingway to work in London's Dorchester Hotel, 1944===Themes[Edit]===

Often recurring themes in Hemingways books are love, war, wilderness and loss. In his novels and short stories he presents human life as an eternal fight, which only ends with death. Where the in general matters is the way man confront a crisis and how he endures the pain that was inflicted him, whether it is his own physical disability or the hostility of the society or the indifference of unfeeling nature. In a world of hurt and failure has the individual have the liberty of the will to create his own values and ideals.


[20]Ezra Pound in 1913, photographed by Alvin Langdon Coburn[21]Sherwood Anderson, 29 november 1933, by Carl van Vechten

Hemingway is best known for his short stories, characterized by a sober style with few adjectives and with many repetitions. Typical are also the many short, declarative sentences, and punctuation, as much as possible, is omitted. In order to make his stories more strongly, he applied the "iceberg theory(iceberg theory) , a restrained, minimalist writing style, which is aimed at the ' story ' to the surface, without explicitly to discuss underlying themes. In practice this meant: as much as possible, leaving out.Hemingways characters express their feelings not in a direct way. The reader comes to know more about them by what they do and by what they say. Just like an iceberg only the top visible, plays a lot of what really matters is set below the surface. This thrift and detachment gives the impression of a cool realism, which in its time was very innovative.Hemingway was praised for this style, and on the other hand some critics reproached him that he his stories populated with cardboard characters, unworkable. That he wrote, however, was a conscious choice.

Hemingways school and inspiration was journalism. In several interviews he referred to the style guide of the newspaper The Kansas City Star as the basis for his way of writing.As a young, fledgling journalist he was that he had to write short, powerful, clear and positive and should be sparingly with adjectives and subordinate clauses and that lesson stayed with him throughout his life.

Hemingways concise way of writing would according to others also in the hand because he worked as a foreign correspondent for the newspaper stories are as cabletelegram(English: "cable") sent. This ' cablese, "as it was called, jokingly took the newspaper less because a telegram was paid per word. It supplied a story on with high information density and unadorned. Hemingways biographer Carlos Baker also agrees with the cablese-theory. In addition, he believes that Hemingways concise mode of expression, both in his conversations as in his lyrics, there also was that he wanted to avoid any appearance of pretension. [15Baker is referring to the so-called Hemingway Choctaw, a "native American" manner of speaking, in which pronouns, some verbs and articles were omitted. Hemingway found it apparently laconically, feet on the ground and manly so to speak.

On high school there were two teachers that have encouraged Hemingways writing talent: Miss Fannie Biggs and Miss Dixon. Hemingway spoke full of praise for them.Especially with the creative Fannie Biggs he had a good relationship, because he could with all the problems to her adolescent. [16Hemingways style and his whole development as a writer, however, were mainly affected by Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein, two experienced writers who have taken the ambitious young man under their wing. Hemingway met Anderson, the author of the novel Winesburg, Ohio, in Chicago in autumn 1920 and it was on his advice that he not long afterwards to Paris took off.Though he later Anderson's style would influence clearly showed his parody, from short stories like My Old Man and I Want to Know Why. Gertrude Stein, for its part, stimulated Hemingway to experiment with automatic writing and free association and they gave him the advice to quit his job and to live only for his art. Hemingway himself called his most trusted critic Ezra Pound. Pound had taught him to cut into the use of adjectives and detailed descriptions.

"You are the only guy who knows a god damn thing about writing!"

— Letter to Ezra Pound, Paris, 17 March 1924

Already his first successful novel, The Sun Also Rises, was criticized because of its concise style. It occurred to critics on that Hemingway used their acclaimed no stream or consciousnesstechniek (the monologue intérieur) where the thoughts of roman characters are displayed. Hemingway, however, followed his own path, because for him the veracity of his story was mainly.

"The critics miss their interior monologues In Sun A.R. and aren't happy-or disappointed I cut out 40,000 words or the stuff that would have made them happy."

— Letter to Maxwell Perkins, Paris, 19 november 1926

Influence and significance[Edit]Edit

Hemingway is widely regarded as one of the most influential 20th-century writers. His books, which were translated in more than 35 languages, had a profound influence on modern European writers such as Jean-Paul SartreAlbert Camus and Heinrich Böll. [17his sober, precise and true-to-life writing style affected also hard-boiled-authors asDashiell HammettJohn O'Hara and Norman Mailer and included the African American writer Ralph Ellison called Hemingway as his main model. Hemingways way of writing also had a direct influence on J.D. Salingerwork and that of many others. On the influence of his prose that Hemingway the Nobel Prize Committee said by his powerful style "changed forever the way in which we write and read literature". [18]

During the 1950s, the last ten years of his work got a lot of attention from Hemingways life, academic critics and biographers, despite great resistance by Hemingway himself, who resisted writing about and analyzing still living authors. Carlos Baker delivered with Hemingway: The Writer as Artist a thematic study of his fiction and non-fiction; Philip Young wrote a controversial psychoanalytic treatment of the life and work of Ernest Hemingway; and Charles Fenton examined in The Apprenticeship or Ernest Hemingway his first years as a journalist. These young scientists were convinced that Hemingway would be considered over the next few years as an important figure in American literature, and they got right. By the end of the Decade was Hemingway discussed in important statements of Paul Brodtkorbs Amrikaanse literature, as Charles Feidelson andInterpretations of American Literature (1959) and Leslie Fahmy Love and Death in the American Novel (1960). A key role in Hemingway's Canon as literary figure played his Novella The Old Man and The Sea in 1952. It surprised the critics that Hemingway, who had written nothing more extraordinary since the publication of For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) could write such a sophisticated and yet lyrical story. Even his wife Mary was so impressed that they him after reading the manuscript the goosebumps on her arms and told him that they showed him "forgave everything what he had done to her ever". [19]

Immediately after Hemingways death published retrospective reflections of its work by literary critics who wanted to investigate whether the author was worthy to be included in the canon . Examples include articles by Stanley Edgar Hyman (The Best of Hemingway), John c. Kelly's Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961): Formulating the Data or Experience, and c. Hugh Holmans Ernest Hemingway: A Tribute. It turned all to that one important question, which Maxwell Geismar in the New York Times Book Review also chose as a title for his article: "Dad" Was Truly a Great Writer? " A stream of writings from American universities and colleges produced a clear yes it, and the next decade appeared almost four hundred scientific articles and books with Ernest Hemingway as its subject. [20This interest from academic corner continued to the present day.

[22]The John f. K Library in Waltham, Boston, where Hemingways manuscripts and letters are kept

An important year in the study of Hemingways literary inheritance was 1975, when a large collection of manuscripts (of about 19500 pages) and public letters to the national archives were made available in Waltham. In 1980 were the Hemingway manuscripts moved from the national archives to a specially designed space in Boston brand new John f. Kennedy Library. After Carlos Bakers first authorized biography published now other biographies, such as, for example, Bertram d. Sarasons Hemingway and the Sun Set, and also family members of Hemingway left moving along: his widow Mary Hemingway How It Waspublished; Madelaine Hemingway Miller wrote Ernie: Hemingway's Sister "Sunny" Remembers, and his youngest son Gregory Hemingway the bitter dad, A Personal Memoir.

When Mary Hemingway no longer was able to manage her late husband's literary Affairs, came under the impetus of the trustees a stream of publications on gang (see next chapter "posthumous"). They brought in two years more "new" Hemingwayboeken on the market than the cautious Mary the previous decade had allowed.

Posthumous editions[Edit]Edit

Shortly after Hemingways death were literary critic Malcolm Cowley and Carlos Baker, who would write an authorized biography, given the task to decide which of the restererende manuscripts of the writer might be publishable. The first posthumous work was A Moveable Feast (1964), a wistful reminder of Hemingways first years in Paris. A year later, The Atlantic Monthly published a few short stories and two long poems.William White In 1967 edited a collection of Hemingways best journalistic pieces under the title By Ernest Hemingway online. However, that was not one of them.

After his suicide in 1961 left Hemingway A Moveable Feast in addition to the already mentioned three other unfinished books after: Islands in the StreamThe Garden of Eden and a titelloos work of his travels in Africa. The three novels were issued between 1964 and 1986 like it was going to separate texts, but in the meantime, research has shown that Hemingway had a trilogy in mind. [21When was announced in 1998 byScribner's and Hemingway's heirs that there the following year new memoirs of the author would appear under the title Truth at First Light, noted journalists from Newsweek on "... the posthumous Ernest Hemingway can't seem to shut up!" (the posthumous Hemingway doesn't seem to be able to stop!) [22Hemingways 70-year-old son Patrick, who made the manuscript of 200,000 words set in stone, swore that it "absolutely the last full literary work of his to come out" would be. There seemed to have come to an end the stream of new books of the deceased author. In 2005 was a reissue of Truth at First Light on the market, an amplified report of Hemingways experiences in Africa, now with the title Under Kilimanjaro .

It might be wondered whether publishing works that Hemingway himself apparently not ripe for publication be considered that does justice to the masterful stylist was in his best work. An exception is according to critics[23issued in 1964 A Moveable Feast, an account of his early days in Paris in the 1920s, when he left journalism and writer of novels and short stories, and also Truth at First Light is compared to other memoirs of Hemingway surprisingly because of the unusually comic and tongue-in-cheek tone.

Film Adaptations[Edit]Edit

[23]Poster of the film A Farewell to Armsfrom 1932

All great works of Hemingway were filmed: A Farewell to Arms (1932 and 1958), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), To Have and Have Not (1944), The Killers (1946), The Macomber Affair (1947), The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1952), The Sun Also Rises (1957), The Old Man and The Sea (1958), and Islands in the Stream (1977).


(works after 1961 are published posthumously)




  • (1981) Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 1917-1961
  • (2011 – 2013) The Cambridge Edition of the Letters of Ernest Hemingway (The letters of Ernest Hemingway: Volume 1, 1907-1922; Volume 2, 1923-1925)

More Collections[Edit]Edit

Prizes and awards[Edit]Edit

[24]Bronze Star, such as that at Hemingway was awarded

During his lifetime Hemingway was awarded:

  • Medaglia d'Argento (Silver military merit Medal, Italy) in World War I
  • Bronze Star (as a war correspondent in World War II, US) in 1947
  • Pulitzer Prize in 1953 (for The Old Man and The Sea, US)
  • American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit in 1954
  • Nobel Prize for literature in 1954

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