The English civil war , the period of conflict in the kingdoms England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651, and refers specifically to the two wars (1642–1645and 1648–1649) between the royalist supporters of Charles I of England -the cavaliers and the supporters of the Long Parliament, the roundheads. A third war (1649-51) between the supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Hull House, ended with a victory for Parliament in september 1651.
The wars led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the monarchy by the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653) and then the Protectorate (1653-1659) under the rule of Oliver Cromwell. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship found its end, and a new Protestant aristocracy originated in Ireland. An important precedent was created: the King could not govern without the consent of Parliament and people.
The civil wars broke out not because of the resistance of the English against the policies of Charles I, who ruled without Parliament for eleven years, but because his Scottish nationals were able to offer resistance to successfully the political and ecclesiastical reforms that London wished to impose their.
Already during the reign of King James I developed between monarch and people. The Puritans were a major influence on religious and political grounds. Queen Elizabeth I they had worshipped, though it was not always pleased with them. Elizabeth supported the Protestants in Europe where that could harm England's interests without.
But in 1603 was the Scottish House of Stuart on the English throne come. Who were Catholic, though it was Jacobus raised Protestant. And although James the Bible translate left and interfered with the religious strife in the low countries, the Puritans not him.
In 1621 was a first hard collision between King and Parliament. Commons argued about the events in Bohemia, where the Protestant Winter King was driven out by the Catholic Emperor. There was lack of understanding about the English non-intervention. The Winter King consort of the King's daughter Elizabeth was note.
Jacobus reacted furiously. He sent a letter to Parliament in which he announced that he would in future evil-speaking MPs arrested. Commons came thereupon with a memorandum in which the listed rights and extension are demanded. James left the leaders of this movement actually locking up annulled.
Between the accession of Charles Iin 1625 , who at the age of twenty-four succeeded his father, and the outbreak of the first civil war in 1642, there were increasing problems for the King. There was the Roman Catholic wife of the King. In the Protestant England became the French Princess Henrietta-Maria with suspicion. The loyalty of Charles I in front of her would eventually have harmful effects for its politics. Another negative factor was the role that George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham and close adviser to the King, has played. His incompetence and urge to France against Spain and to battle led to a breach between the King and Parliament. When Buckingham money early for its wars, Parliament was very reluctant. It supported this action only on condition that Buckingham could be recalled if the results are not up to the expectations corresponded. When Parliament him than because of the disastrous situation in France in 1626 , regarded the King dismissed this as an insult and he sent Parliament home.
However, Charles I In 1628 was need of money required to convene the Parliament. As a condition for approving the taxes, the members a ' Petition or Right ' in which they referred to the Magna Carta and recorded some basic rights for citizens. Reluctantly the King would accept this.
The Puritans, which represented an influential minority in the Parliament, were increasingly dissatisfied with the attitude of the King in religious matters. William Laud, as he had a notoriously opposed the Puritans and defender of the "scandalous doctrine ' as would the Church of Rome one of the true Christianity churches are, appointed him Bishop of London. One of Lauds close associates was appointed as Dean of the Chapel Royal. The King himself appeared to have provoked them by stating that Parliament was not to engage in the business of the English church.
It is in this atmosphere that the Parliament refused the right of the Crown on to confirm its traditional income as long as it has no debate on the resolution that "the Affairs of the worldly Frost must give way to the Affairs of the heavenly Frost '. Charles I found that he had to act and asked to go with the Parliament recess. Because they this noisy refused, he sent on 3 March 1629 the Parliament. He would govern without Parliament the following eleven years. That same year he concluded peace with France and Spain also with two years later.
It's not so much the monarch responsible for the course of events, as well as his ministers and advisers such as William Laud, who in 1633 was Archbishop of Canterbury . He appointed bishops who shared his vision of the Church of England, a church that has remained free of the heresies of the medieval Popes and, as King put it, the happy medium between "the pageantry of the superstitious tyrants (read the Catholics) and the mediocrity of the anarchy (read the Puritans)" wishes to walk.
Of course the King had during that period without Parliament need money. He then took also resorted to old and not taxes approved by Parliament, which of course were unpopular. Nevertheless, this period without war for many free for prosper. The civil war broke out not because of resistance in England.
The spur was entering a new Anglican prayer book in accordance with the principles in Presbyterian Scotland in 1637, when the Starter was up to the riots in the St. Giles- EdinburghCathedral, with women and children the festive robes of the clergy tore. These robes stood for the Anglicanism with its leaning towards ceremonial.
Because the King stubbornly persisted, almost half the population signed a national Covenant (The Covenant) which they labeled as a reenactment of the innovations "poping faith and tyranny".
Charles I in 1640 decided to act against the Scots. The King who needed money, was obliged to convene Parliament. This session, which entered history as ' Short Parliament ', lasted less than twenty days before the King they disbanded. In the following months, the unrest in the North. The mini army of the English King was defeated by the Scottish convenanters in Newburn , which thereupon Newcastle upon Tyne and the North of England occupy. This forced Charles I to convene Parliament again in november because the Treasury was empty. This was the ' Long Parliament ', that from then until the end of the civil wars was almost always in session. There was a set of laws realized that the power of the King inperkten.
There would definitely be a compromise between monarch and Parliament reached, were it not that in the autumn the 1641 Irish rebellion broke out. The Irish people feared that the Protestant power fuelled after the execution of the Earl of Strafford in may 1641. The representative of the King in Ireland was condemned for treason on the basis of the false accusation in Ireland a Catholic army to England with the intention to have brought in order. Many Puritans suspects there the King and his Catholic Queen of to have a hand in the rebellion of Irish Catholics. The leaders of Parliament names defensive measures making them alienated the more conservative elements in England; who joined the King and formed the basis of the royalists.
On 4 January 1642 Charles I tried five members of Parliament, which he deemed responsible for the resistance of the Parliament, to arrest for high treason. He came personally to Parliament but had to establish that the men had fled. They were on their flight protected by armed supporters of Parliament. London turned out in riot. The Queen and the Royal family fled to the continent.Front gradient in 1642 — 1645:
The "Long Parliament" brought an army under the leadership of the Earl of Essex. Charles I, who in the meantime had left London, planted on 22 August are standard inNottingham and did to no avail a call to save the country to a civil war.
The positions of the two camps are known: the royalists fought for a traditional church and State, the ' roundheads ' wanted radical reforms in the areas of faith and economyand demanded a redistribution of power at the highest level.
Large parts of Wales, Cornwall and Northern England chose the side of the sovereign. Other parts of the country initially attempted to remain neutral. One can argue that Charles I especially in the countryside and at the Catholics support was made while London, the counties of the Southeast and the centers of the cloth factory for the majority chose the side of the House.
The Parliament, that the weapons arsenals of London and Hull possessed, had clear on more resources than the royalists. The King hoped to be able to compensate this imbalance by quick victories. It explains why the Earl of Newcastle embarked immediately the siege of Hull. On 11 October he ceased this operation.
the next day the King left Shrewsbury to go to London to March. With the intention to intercept him came from the South the Earl of Essex. Both armies reached 23 October clashed in the plain of Edgehill in Warwickshire. The fight lasted until evening came and both armies were too exhausted to continue to battle. The battle ended undecided but both camps claimed victory over.
It is a fact that the royalists advanced further in the direction of London until they were brought to a halt in Turnham Green . Turnham Green is sometimes called the "Valmy of the English civil war" because it was a victory for the Parliament without a fight was delivered, victory whereby the King never has come even closer to London. Charles I decided its troops to folds on Oxford. The city would be the next years the capital of the King-men are..
Meanwhile, the King, with or without foreign assistance, developed a plan to advance from different directions to London to lay siege to the city and to starve if possible. The fight would be at different places inYorkshire, East Anglia, West and Southwest England fed.
- March 13, Hopton Heath, the battle ends undecided but the Earl of Northampton, Commander of the royalists, killed.
- 25 april Sourton Down, Chudleigh lures the royalist Hopton in the fall and beats him. Hopton manages to escape but in his correspondence one finds details about a planned advance into Somerset. The Earl of Stamford thinks to have him now in his power.
- May 16, Stamford Hill, the Earl of Stamford wait Hopton on in the proximity of Stratton. He has playing on a hill and despite the fact that they are clearly in the minority in number and armament storm the Cornish Pikemen the Hill and know that eventually conquer. The "roundheads" store in panic on the flight.
- Adwalton Moor30 June, Fairfax is defeated and the royalists are master in much of Yorkshire, England.
- July 5, Lansdown Hill, even though the situation is much similar to the battle of Stratton is the opponent here much stronger. The fight ends undecided but during the night the army of Parliament draws Waller back to Bath. The losses on both sides are great.
- July 26, Bristol, the small garrison could not resist when attacking the Prince Rupert city. The intake of this port is important because of the links to Europe and Ireland.
- 5 september Gloucester, the King gives the siege of the city on as it approaches the army led by the Earl of Essex.
- first battle of Newbury20 september, after twelve hour fight the King's Army pulls back to Oxford. The battle is perhaps a turning point in the first English civil war: the Royalists were missing here, of course, the chance to by a victory on the Earl of Essex London into submission.
- 11 October, Cromwell and Fairfax hunt Wincebythe Cavalry of the King on the run. As a result, they conquer the control over the city Lincoln.
Both camps found that the counties no viable units to enter a protracted war when one has. They tried to organise these in larger entities that would be able to support a larger army and to contribute to a national strategy. These attempts failed mostly. Yet they are worth mentioning because they illustrate the natural regionalism of the conflict. Only in the Northern counties, United under the Earl of Newcastle on the side of the King, and in the Eastern Association for Parliament, this led to some military successes.
The summer of 1643 was for the army of the Prince successfully but the defeats of Gloucester and Newbury have do the tide times. Two major political decisions would the civil war in its final fold do fall.
First there was the peace with the Irish rebels. The intention of Charles I was free up to the English army at his side to come out fighting. But generally, it was believed that there would follow soon Irish "traveled". This was sufficient to all Protestant classes to unite against him.
In addition there was did to the Scots Parliament that concessions in Exchange for aid and assistance. The "Solemn Covenant between England and Scotland" was closed on 25 september 1643, ten days after the Irish peace. On 19 January 1644 , a Scottish army under the command of the count of Life across the border to strengthen the "rondheads".
On 16 may 1644 Prince Rupert left Oxford with a part of the army with the intention to recapture the area around York. The two armies approached Later that month of "rondkoppen" under the command of Essex and Sir William Waller the headquarters of Charles I in Oxford that in the meantime had become a fortified fortress. The King found it wise in the night from 3 to 4 June with 3000 horsemen and 2500 infantrymen to leave the city and withdraw to Abingdon and the Cotswolds. Instead of together to follow the King decided to go to the South West Essex in an effort to relieve Lymne .
On June 29 it came with Waller until the battle of Cropredy Bridge. Waller, who with his army followed the royalists on the other side of the River was, saw that there was a large gap yawned between their front and rear guard. He thought the time had come to split the army into two. However, his plan failed and he lost his artillery commander and eleven cannons. This defeat shocked his self-confidence, the more so since 2000 of his soldiers deserted. Charles I, encouraged by the victory, went behind to Essex.
Meanwhile, approached the city of York, which was defended by Rupert a garrison led by the Marquess of Newcastle, and all two month was besieged by supporters of Parliament. When these were made aware of the impending arrival, they raised the siege on and they arrived to meet the royalists. They wanted to prevent the army of Prince Rupert itself would fit in with that of the King.
Both armies met on 2 July for what will go down in history as the battle of Marston Moor. After the siege of the city was lifted is Newcastle to the Prince come to its garrison to make available. Thereupon the Prince decided to wait on this strengthening. But the besieged elected it to first to plunder that the fleeing stocks ' rondkoppen ' left behind and only came at 4 o'clock in the afternoon in Marston Moor to. At that time, the army of the Prince already 12 hours ready for battle. During a sudden fierce storm, as the royalists think fought until tomorrow will be, conducted a surprise attack from Fairfax and Cromwell.
After two hours the battle was the bloodiest, which many of the civil war, for the year. The input of Cromwell is very important. He'll be there nickname ' Ironside ' (Mike) get and his riders will now be called the Ironsides.
York and the North appeared before the King finally lost. The Marquess of Newcastle left disappointed the scene and would stay for the next three years in Hamburg . Rupert himself through the Yorkshire Dales with 6000 men to escape. For the umpteenth time the three armies of the roundheads, that of the Scots under the Earl of Manchester, of Fairfax and Life, each with their own way.
Essex hit in the far Southwest with 10,000 men embedded at Lostwithiel. On August 7, asked the King, who refused the surrender of Essex. He hoped that the fleet of the Earl of Warwick to help would be in Fowey him Sai. When it turns out that Warwick by headwind has been delayed, the precarious state of the surrounded army. Essex decided that the only solution is: escape now it is still possible.
On 31 August 2000 Cavalrymen succeeded, under the leadership of the mercenary Behre at night in by the lines of the Royalists to Plymouth to escape. Essex himself fled in a fishing boat to one of the ships of Warwick; the infantrymen were under the leadership of Philip at Skipton to fend for themselves. They had the task to defend itself as good as possible.
The battle of Lostwithiel is all about before he started. The foot people refused to fight and there rest the team captains have no option but to surrender. The royalists left their 6000 prisoners free on condition that they are no longer for the ' rondkoppen ' will fight. The Southwest seems lost for Parliament.
The messages that reached the Parliament's supporters from the South, were alarming: Essex on the run, Wallers army on the verge of mutiny, Brownes soldiers want to plunder, returned to Holland, Behre is the headstrong Manchester follows the commands not on ... The ' rondkoppen ' were evident in the well. The only thing that was left was the King to prevent them the beleaguered London Oxford Advanced or endangered. Meanwhile pleaded Cromwell for the unification of the army, trained and organized as his ' Ironsides '.
Charles I, more concerned to Oxford to threaten to buckle than to London, progressed only slowly. The parliamentarians wanted to make him stop in Newbury before Prince Rupert had seen the chance to join him.
On 27 October 1644 the second battle of Newbury took place. The 9,000 men of the Royalists were clearly in the minority in front of the army of Parliament (17,000) but the positions they occupy, were well justified.Initially I managed them best to resist but the tide seemed to be turning. Yet they knew to Oxford to escape because the Earl of Manchester the attack started an hour late. The King himself went with a small escort toBath, where Prince Rupert stood, and then returned back to Oxford for the winter.
Under the ' roundheads ' during the winter, there was much doubt about the usefulness of continuing the civil war. But also many royalists were war weary and wanted peace.
The year 1645 would be a fatal year for the King. It began with a series of executions including that on 10 January by William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, for alleged high treason. This will definitively a period in the history of the Church of England exit.
On 15 February, the ' New Model Army ' to life with Fairfax in command and Cromwell as second in command.