Earl Kenneth Hines, best known as Earl 'Fatha' Hines ( Duquesne ( Pennsylvania ) December 28 1903 - Oakland ( California ), April 22 1983 ) was an American jazz pianist and big band leader . He has been called the first modern jazz pianist and jazz has also shaped the twentieth century.

Content  Edit

  • 1 The beginning
  • 2 Louis Armstrong
  • 3 Bigband
  • 4 50s and comeback
  • 5 Discography (selection)
  • 6 Literature

The start  Edit

His parents were musical: his father played cornet in a brass band in Pittsburgh and his mother was a church organist. Just as his father tried to play Earl cornet, but later moved to the piano and took lessons. When he was 17, he went to play with Lois Deppe & his Serenaders , which occurred in a nightclub in Pittsburgh. Hines' first recordings were with the band: four recordings for Gennett Records in 1923, including a composition of Hines' hand, 'Congaine. Two appeared on plate. A month later, the band went back into the recording studio for recording.

Louis Armstrong Edit

In 1925 he moved to jazz capital Chicago , where then Jelly Roll Morton and King Oliver were active. Hines played with the band from Sammy Stewart and Erskine Tate and then in the orchestra ofCarroll Dickerson , with which he made ​​a long tour. In this orchestra, he met trumpeter Louis Armstrong , whom he greatly admired. Hines and Armstrong went to play with Dickersons band in Sunset Café and became friends. The band was led by Armstrong, who was very impressed by Hines' avant-garde piano he played piano in the manner of a trumpet. In 1927, Armstrong blew his Louis Armstrong's Hot Five new life, popped up a year later with the Earl Hines band and the studio and made ​​with the pianist some famous recordings that are among the most important in the history of jazz: "Weather Bird", "West End Blues" and eg "Tight Like This'. About his musical collaboration with Hines Armstrong would later say: "When we played together, it was like a continuous jam session."

That same year, Hines also took several solos, including "My Monday Date 'and '57 Varieties'. When Sunset Café closed, Armstrong was playing in Savoy Theatre. Hines joined Jimmy noones band, who worked at Apex Club. With Noone were also made recordings, including "Apex Blues'.

Big band Edit

On his birthday in 1928, Hines started a big band that decade the 'house band' would be of Grand Terrace Cafe, a club of gangster Al Capone . From this club played the Earl Hines Orchestra (or "Organization" as Hines liked to call it) from 1934 regularly live on the radio, coast to coast, sometimes up to seven times per week. Through these broadcasts Hines got great fame and he became a role model for the black community.

The orchestra played Jess Stacy or Nat King Cole occasionally when Hines' replacement on the piano. Charlie Parker had his first job, to Hines fired him because the saxophonist often appeared on time. Late twenties and the thirties Hines made ​​numerous recordings: in 1929 for Victor , in the period 1932-1934 for Brunswick , for Decca in 1934 and 1935 Vocalion (1937-1938) and in the years 1939 to 1942 for Bluebird . The recordings are among the best of the black jazz of that era. In the period 1942-1945 were no recordings are made, but the band members explained during nightly jam sessions the germ for the approaching bebop -revolutie. In 1942, alongside Parker trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie member of the band, as singer Billy Eckstine who would later start a bop big band. Besides Eckstine band launched the other vocalists: Sarah Vaughan and Johnny Hartman . Hines led his big band until 1947, when the big band era was actually over.

Hines (second from right) in Palomar Supper Club, 1951 with Jack Teagarden (far left) and Barney Bigard(far right)

The 50s and comeback Edit

In 1948 Hines joined "The All Stars' by Louis Armstrong, for the most part consisting of famous men of big bands, but Hines was now no more than a 'sideman'. He was not so lucky and remained until 1951. In the years after Hines had his own combos with which he toured, among others in Europe.In the early sixties, when jazz was going through lean times, he settled in Oakland and opened a tobacco shop. He thought there to put an end.Thanks friend and manager Stanley Dance Hines played in 1964 a series of recitals in the Little Theatre in New York, which caused great excitement.Hines finished high in polls in several jazz magazines ( Downbeat include No. 1 jazz pianist, 1966 Jazz:. Jazz Musician of the year) and appeared several times on television. He played solo, but also had another group, a quartet with tenor saxophonist Budd Johnson . Hines was back and played in the following years with countless musicians and made them (but also solo) many plates. Some names: Duke Ellington (duets in 1966), Ella Fitzgerald , Dizzy Gillespie , Lionel Hampton , Coleman Hawkins , Oscar Peterson , Sarah Vaughan , Ben Webster , Teddy Wilson , Lester Young andRy Cooder . His most prized recordings were his inventive solo recordings, including tributes in the seventies to Ellington, Armstrong and George Gershwin . Between his comeback in 1964 and his death made Hines 90 plates. Most solo recordings were there at once. Pianist Lennie Tristano : "Earl Hines is the only one of us makes those real jazz and swings when he plays alone." Count Basie called him the best pianist in the world.

In 1968 Hines toured in South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Japan (six weeks), the Soviet Union. In 1975 he played for UK cameras for an hour at a nightclub in Washington. The New York Herald Tribune called it the best jazz film of all time. Hines has performed at the White House and for the Pope. A few days before his death, he still acted in a show.

On his tombstone: "pianoman.

Discography (selection) Edit

  • Earl Hines Trio, Dial 1952
  • Earl Hines All Stars, Dial, 1953
  • Earl Hines Plays Fats Waller, Brunswick, 1953
  • Eearl Hines With Billy Eckstine, RCA, 1953
  • Earl's Pearls, MGM, 1960
  • A Sunday's Date, Riverside, 1961
  • Linger Awhile, Bluebird, 1964
  • Spontaneous Explorations, Contact 1964
  • Grand Reunion, Verve, 1965
  • Earl Hines & Budd Johnson, Black and Blue, 1974
  • Once Upon A Time, Impulse !, 1966

Literature Edit

  • Dance Stanley- The World of Earl Hines -That Capo Press, 1977

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