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Chocolate (also called: chocolate) is a delicacy made from cocoa, which is extracted from cocoa beans, the kernel of the fruit of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao).

Chocolate is loved in the world. In Belgium and Netherlands is chocolate for sale as bars, but also used in products such as chocolates (Pralines), cookies and ice creams.It is also loose cocoa powder for sale. Chocolate is also an ingredient of many types of sweets.

ContentEdit

[hide]*1 History

HistoryEdit

[1][2]Two Mixtec Kings drinking chocolate from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall

The Aztecs linked cocoa with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. They drank a chocolate drink, xocoatl, often seasoned with vanillaChile pepper and allspice. The drink would go against fatigue, a result of caffeine which is a component of the cocoa. A Spanish Jesuit missionary, Jose de Acosta, which at the end of the 16th century lived in Peru and Mexico, wrote all about that effect. The drink was used at the Court of Emperor Montezuma.

In 1585 was chocolate for the first time on a commercial scale from Veracruz to Sevilla transported. Chocolate was then drunk, which the Europeans only sugar added and thus to the chili pepper. In 1615 , the chocolate drink at official audiences at the French King introduced, until it was abolished by use cuts again. In the 17th century was chocolate a luxury product that especially used by the nobility.

The Spaniards who lived in America found out that she could bake yummy chocolate cookies by adding sugar to the cocoa paste. They could the preparation of chocolate almost a century long secrecy.

The first chocolate factory was erected in 1728 in England. In 1760 there were factories in Germany and France. In 1819 was first manufactured Swiss chocolate . In 1813Blooker began with the production of cocoa and chocolate in Netherlands, and in 1828 Casparus van Houten SR. did an important invention that the fat of the cocoa mass could be separated. This technique got world wide. End 18th century began to decline in price, chocolate so that ordinary people could pay.

The first edible chocolate would in 1847 were created by the British Quaker Joseph Fry. The Quaker Cadbury and Rowntree were two families-Fry, centuries in the chocolate industry active.

Production and preparationEdit

[3][4]A cocoa tree===Production of cocoa===

The main ingredient of chocolate, cocoa, is extracted from cocoa beans, the seed of the cacao tree. Cocoa beans are in jute bags of about 70 kg imported from tropicalregions. The cocoa beans were already fermented and dried (see cacao tree). Upon arrival, the beans of various origin mixed, in order to get an even taste. The beans are then cleaned: twigs, rope, stones and the like are removed. Then the beans are roasted in rotating drums at a temperature up to 140 ° c. The temperature and duration determine to a large extent the final taste of the cocoa. The roasted beans then go by a breaker. The CAP breaks open and is blown away so that only the core (nib) remains.The cores are in the cocoa Mills ground into a thick solid pasta. This is called the cocoa mass. The fat can be extracted from this product. This is called the cocoa butter. The thick, hard lump that is left, is ground into low fat cocoa, or cocoa powder.

The production is described in greater detail below.

FermentationEdit

The first step in the production process is the fermentation. This can be done in different ways.

On a smaller scale, put the beans in hope and covered it with leaves of the banana tree. This hope may 25 kg to 2500 kg beans contain. Sometimes also the beans in baskets.Most breeders mix their beans on the second or third day of fermentation, on the other hand, in order to obtain more homogeneity, on the other hand, in order to involve more oxygen in the process, in order to avoid lactate formation.

In gisterijen, the beans and pulp plantations or collected in large wooden boxes, which contain 1 to 2 tons of beans. Usually the bins not too high to have a large contact surface with air oxygen. Sometimes the beans after a while in yeasts, likewise for reasons of oxygen supply. Widely, the beans ferment longer than usually on a small scale.

Depending on the species, the mass two to eight days rest. In a first phase, there are micro-organisms, yeasts, mainly in the pulp. Presumably are insects like fruit flies responsible for these introductions. The temperature can reach up to 50 degrees. The yeast is responsible for ensuring that on the first day the sugar in the fruit pulp is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Also lactate formation can occur, but that is disastrous for the taste and must therefore be avoided, by enough to administer oxygen . Pectolytic enzymes and other glycosidasen are responsible for the degradation of polysaccharidesstructuurgevende. The flesh becomes liquid and rinses away. The extra oxygen that becomes available leads to further oxidation of the alcohol to acetic acid, primarily from the 2nd to 4th day. The decrease of pH of about 6.5 to 4.5 causes the cell membranes of the beans are more permeable. The cocoa beans lose their germination potential and oxidation process begins now also in the beans themselves. From the fifth to the seventh gistingsdag it is the phenolic components that are oxidized and condensed. These are responsible for the typical color (red brown) of the fermented cocoa beans. The decrease in amount of dissolved phenols improves the original strong, bitter taste. The fermentation process is very important for the final flavour of the cocoa, and therefore should be done with care. Of course also the growth of harmful micro-organisms must be prevented. The fermentation of the cocoa usually takes place in the country of production.

DryingEdit

The fermentation process is stopped by drying the seeds until they have a moisture content of less than eight percent. This physical process must be slow to happen. If it happens too quickly, some chemical reactions from the fermentation process but half ' finished ' what is disastrous for the final taste. There are two dry methods: dry in the Sun and artificial drying. For drying in the Sun, the beans are spread over a dry, clean surface. The beans are rotated to ensure uniform drying. Dry in the Sun little is done on an industrial scale. Artificial drying is done mainly with warm air.

BurnEdit

The fermented and dried cocoa is transported to the consumer countries, and further processed. The beans are purified and collected according to size. It is important that the cocoa beans about equal be burned.Burning contributes to the further oxidation of the phenols (important for taste) and reduce the moisture content, it further to three percent. Also the eggs and larvae of pests are destroyed in this way. The aroma of the beans is better, the color deeper. The seeds are hard and brittle. The Peel is looser due to enzymology and thermal reactions. Maturity, moisture content, size and previous processing steps determine the degree of roasting. In general increases the temperature when roasting not above 150 ° c. The roasting itself takes 10 to 35 minutes. The heat transmission happens directly via heated surfaces or via warmeluchtstroom, without the peel of the beans burned. The beans are cooled immediately after roasting: in this way the toasting process completely stopped.

SevenEdit

The roasted beans are after burning almost always sifted to remove the peel and the germ carrots. About 80 percent are obtained after the seven beans, 10 percent pace, a small amount of germs and particles at about 4% fine cocoa ' waste '. The beans themselves still contain 1.5 to 2 percent pace and germs. Although the waste cocoa shells is considered of little value, it can be used for different purposes like winning theobromine, as a tea or, after the extraction of fat, as fertilizer or as fuel. What is generally regarded as good, pure cocoa contains up to 1.8% Peel residues.

TimesEdit

The cocoa beans are ground now. This results in a homogeneous, viscous cocoa mass. This mass is partly directly used in chocolate production, or cocoa powder and cocoa butter by created.

Presses: cocoa butter and cocoa powderEdit

This mass is now subject to an alkali satie process. The aim is to improve the taste by partial neutralization of the free acids, but also the color, homogeneity and suspension to improve capacity. In the alkali satie process, introduced in 1828 by Coenraad Johannes van Houten, the cocoa paste treated with an aqueous 2-2.5% alkaline solution at a temperature of 75 to 100 ° c. After that, the whole, if necessary, neutralized with acid. The whole is dried to a moisture content of 2% using a vacuum dryer or by further kneading the mass above 100 ° c. This treatment causes a swelling of starch resulting in a spongy and porous structure of the cocoa mass. The alkaline cocoa mass contains about 55% fat. This cocoa butter is removed from the mass with hydraulic presses. This happens at a pressure of 400 to 500 bar and a temperature of 100 ° c a small. There remains a dry, rock hard chocolate cake, which still contains 10 to 24 percent fat. This is then ground into cocoa powder. Most of the cocoa butter is used in the production of chocolate. Cocoa powder with a low fat content is processed in Sandwich spreads and bakery products. Cocoa powder with a high fat content is used in the manufacture of chocolate and ice-cream.

Preparation of chocolateEdit

[5]Cinema journal from 1946 on the manufacture of chocolate

The chocolate will go through a long stretch of fijnwalsen (to the particles in the chocolate as fine as possible), warming, conching (an action that the hot chocolate is stirred for hours) and tempering (a very slow cooling). This operation allows the manufacturer sure the chocolate melting point slightly lower than body temperature, making it melt in the mouth and in this way a more pronounced taste.

MixingEdit

First the mixed ingredients: cocoa butter, milk powder, milk, cocoa mass, sugar and flavorings such as vanilla. The amount of added substances depends on the type of chocolate that one wants to prepare. For example, no white chocolate cocoa mass used and for dark (black, pure) Chocolate no milk powder. Mixing itself usually happens in the tea Blender, a cylinder with rough walls in which two mill stones around running. The result is a viscous chocolate mass.

Rollers/times (refine)Edit

The next step is the mash through a series of rollers or rollers led, whereby the future chocolate gets refined and a better texture. In practice that with a five Waltz, a machine with five reels. This allows agglomerates, which later have to be removed. With a knife, the mass of the last role scraped and transported to a next stage in production. Other devices used for refining used are theslagmolen, a drum with an uneven internal face which knives scraping, or the ball mill, where steel balls in a cylinder in which the mass movement times. After this process varies the size of the chocolate particles from 20 to 40 µm; that varies per producer and per application. The body fat percentage of the mass is now about 25%.

ConchingEdit

[6][7]A chocolate bar in melted chocolate

After rolling is the mass still too dry and does not yet have the right flavor. The chocolate mass must first ripen at a temperature of 45 to 50 ° c for 24 hours. After that, the matured mass for 6 to 12 hours heated at 80 ° c. A part of the volatile acids disappears and the humidity is lower. That is beneficial to the durability and viscosity. The fat distribution is uniform: each particle is covered with a layer of fat cocoa. That is necessary to the chocolate with the least amount of fat to give it the desired flow properties.This fat phase also brings with it an increase in the homogeneity because also the agglomerates that were formed during rolling, be broken.

Then the remainder of the cocoa butter added, so that the liquid chocolate mass is better, and more homogeneous mass and lecithin which the less viscous.

This process could take 72 hours used to be easy, but now it's reduced to 12 hours or less. The conching determines to a large extent the taste of the end result: the chocolate. Their specific concheercondities therefore conceal chocolate manufacturers.

TemperingEdit

The final step is to ' let the masstemperingto crystallize. The melted chocolate mash is cooled down in ten minutes of 50 ° c to 18 ° c, and the temperature goes up to about 30 ° c. The exact values to the composition can vary. Then the chocolate mass a firm homogeneous structure with good melting properties and a nice shine.

FinishEdit

The chocolate is at a temperature of 30-32 ° c and in heated forms, which are shaken to remove the present air after which they undergo a dramatically to obtain the final form. Now the quality of the chocolate can be measured, and then he can be packed.

Nowadays the process of mixing, refining, conching and harden in one machine are carried out, the total machine.

Impact on humans and animalsEdit

Taste and effectsEdit

Many find chocolate taste good. The pleasant experience when eating chocolate is because the melting point of cocoa butter (an important ingredient of chocolate) slightly lower than body temperature, making it melt in the mouth.

Chocolate is a food that limited amounts of theobrominecaffeine and tryptophan contains, substances that can have an effect on the brain. Research on the popularity of milk chocolate, dark chocolate, white chocolate and cocoa powder be rather from that milk chocolate is the most popular type of chocolate. On the basis of the alleged addictiveness of cocoa would, however, expect to be that dark chocolate is most popular, because it is a higher concentration of cocoa. [2the highest actual percentage cacao in a chocolate bar 88% is because a higher rate would make the chocolate too dry and brittle (this depends on the production process and any additions in the chocolate; so you can find with higher cocoa content chocolate than 88%).

An overview article about the influence of the effects of chocolate is published in may 2000 by researchers at the University of Bristol in the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour.

Affects the brainEdit

Chocolate is a product that contains various substances that have a proven effect on the brain such as the β-phenylethylamine neurotransmitters , dopamineserotonin and endorphins[3], the substances caffeine,theobromine and anandamide, a substance that is related to THC (the active component of cannabis). Because of the presence of these substances is the popular misunderstanding that chocolate would have a stimulating effect on the brain and addictive would be. However, this is not the case, because the said substances in such small concentration occur in chocolate, that an average man many tens of kilos of pure chocolate should be eating in order to experience the slightest effect.

Chocolate can be deadly for dogs and horses, however, because their metabolism cannot resolve theobromine . If dogs eat chocolate, the theobromine 20 hours in the blood circulating. It can seizures, heart attacks, internal bleeding, and finally cause death. Mild symptoms include: shivering, cramps, increased heart rate, vomiting and diarrhea. If a dog eats chocolate, bring him to the vet. Giving salt to the dog to induce vomiting is not a good solution because the dog can death due to a salt poisoning. A dog of 10 pounds can get all phenomena of 12.5 grams of dark chocolate. Milk chocolate should a dog eat 10 times as much to experience the consequences.

HealthEdit

The Zutphen Elderly Study from 1960 has investigated the effects of chocolate on health. In 1985, she has expanded her research. It appeared that two separate analyses on 27 February 2006 are published in theAmerican medical-scientific Journal Archives of Internal Medicine.

It was already known that chocolate beneficial effect on the blood pressure and the blood vessels due to the antioxidants (flavonoids) in cocoa. One went therefore would be after if there will be a positive effect with regard to the death from heart disease, and this is indeed the case. For this is necessary that one receives 4 grams cocoa a day. This can be obtained by daily 10 ounces bittersweet or 13 grams of milk chocolate to eat. [source? ]On the other hand, chocolate contains much saturated fat, which is unhealthy. [4the higher the cocoa content how more favorable ratio between the favourable and unfavourable effect of chocolate (in small quantity per day).

Also in chocolate a small amount to toxic substances. The human body is, however, sufficiently able to process these toxins without adverse consequences.

Furthermore, eating milk chocolate gebitbedervend when one insufficient the teeth. The chocolate itself cannot cause cavities, but it does worsen, as with other foods.

There is also sugar free chocolate on the market. Instead of sugar is another sweetener used.

The hypotensive effectEdit

At the consumption of cocoa is an antihypertensive effect observed. Chocolate cocoa contains can slightly lower blood pressure.

According to an American testing carried out in 1996 to 2000 under 2291 pregnant women, consumption of dark chocolate leads to reduced risk of preeclampsia. The number of women with relevant symptoms there was inversely proportional depending on the level of theobromine in the serum. [5[6]

[8][9]Chocolate as a sign of love===As an aphrodisiac===

Chocolate has the reputation to be an aphrodisiac . At that time the Aztecs believed in the power of this. It was the Spaniards who took this belief to Europe. There is suspicion that the substance is phenylethylamine in chocolate behind, as this also by humans is created when emotional pleasure is experienced. Caffeine may also present asstimulation means contribute.

Giving away chocolate products is often seen as a gift of love . Perhaps because of taste associations and outer beauty that chocolate pralines and other dishes have on many people.

Chocolate products and producers by countryEdit

BelgiumEdit

Belgium is known world wide for its chocolate and in particular for its pralines (called chocolates in Netherlands ). For many tourists buy chocolates just hear when visiting Belgium. And this with reason, because the praline was in Belgium in 1912 by the bakers of Neuhaus invented, and nowhere in the world does one find such a variety of these chocolate candies. Neuhaus is now still a well-known maker of chocolates and other candy by chocolate. Other famous Belgian chocolates are for example of the brand, Leonidas DaskalidèsSalih or Godiva.

Other Belgian chocolate producers are BelcoladeCôte d'OrGallerchocolade Jacques and Chocolate work Gudrun, and Bouchard. Gone chocolate producers are Aiglon, De Beukelaer, M.a., Madan and Victoria.In Belgium is also the largest chocolate factory in the world, in particular to Barry Callebaut Wieze factory. And the first of the 8 Chocolate Academy's spread throughout the world with subsidiaries in France, Switzerland, and the USA.

In addition to the one in Netherlands and sprinkles Belgium also knows the chocolate tablet. This is a thin paste chocolate sandwich serves.

NetherlandsEdit

Chocolate was traveling with Duke in the Netherlands known as Alva. Then arose in Netherlands coffee and chocolate houses. Shop signs hung in Amsterdam In 1660 with the text "Here one Seculatie schenckt".

Dutch producers of chocolate are for example Baronya. DriessenDrosteVerkadeRUnion Noble chocolateWoodenVenz and Tony's Chocolonely. A no longer existing Dutch brand is Tjoklat, the Malay word for chocolate. Union Noble chocolate is merged into Portion Pack Europe, that all activities has housed in the Belgian Herentals. Some other famous Dutch cocoa brands were later taken over by the Belgian Bensdorp, Barry Callebaut, BetkeKwattaKorffBlooker Pette , the Jong, and Ringers.

Belgian chocolates In the Netherlands are also known and loved as well as the Belgian chocolate, from brands such as Côte d'Or.

SwitzerlandEdit

[10]

See Swiss chocolate for the main article on this topic.

Also the Swiss chocolate enjoys international recognition. Important Swiss producers and brands are NestleLindtMilka and Toblerone.

Rest of the worldEdit

Known producers of chocolate in the rest of the world are:

Chocolate ProductsEdit

In addition to General applications in the form of chocolate bars and chocolate milk are, there are several other popular chocolate products and sweets:

  • brownie, a chocolate pastry
  • chocolatespice nuts spice nuts with a layer of chocolate around it, in the flavors white, milk and pure.
  • chocolate balls in R-vla, for example in the banana taste
  • chocolate figures, chocolate products in a special form, such as a Santa Claus, a Zwarte Piet or an Easter Bunny. To obtain these chocolate figures are especially around holidays and other events.
  • chocolate letters, which with Saint Nicholas are given. Often gives one the middle initial of the person or the S of St.
  • chocolate mousse
  • chocolate coins and chocolate cigarettes
  • chocolate mice and chocolate frogs. This is really just a kind of candy with a layer of chocolate around it. It is packaged in an aluminum foil, and is also sold around Saint Nicholas.
  • chocolate spread, this is also a well known product that generally contains only chocolate. Chocolate paste is smeared on bread. There are different types of pastas: duo, pure, milk chocolate or organic pasta.
  • chocolate pudding
  • chocolate sauce, often on different desserts, such as ice cream and pancakes can be used
  • chocolate cake and chocolate cake, cake in which chocolate is processed, or which is in the cake made with chocolate mousse.
  • chocolate truffles
  • sprinkles and flakes as sandwich filling. Sprinkles contains less cocoa butter and is therefore relatively cheap. This also means that it melts in the mouth.
  • kaija, though this is officially not of chocolate, but it's going to be a cocoa fantasy.
  • Angel kisses, consisting of light sweetened egg white foam on a waffle, covered with chocolate.
  • These Easter eggs, eat one around the Easter season.
  • rumbonen and Orange Chips. These are real Dutch confectionery with a layer of dark chocolate.

In november 2002 there was the fuss about the chocolate cigarettes which, according to the European Parliament would encourage tobacco addiction later in life and should therefore be banned. [7the then DutchForeign Minister Ben Bot gave among other things this as an example of what he called the European Union 's rule sigh and what he would like to see reversed. [source?]

ControversyEdit

In the cocoa industry, particularly those in West Africa, is even today for slave labor . Especially small cocoa farmers are using to produce cheap and so the competition to be able to go with the larger plantations. [8it is estimated that at least 90% of the cocoa farmers in Ivory Coast used a form of slave labor. [9]

This slave labor has for many years been a subject of controversy. Some chocolate manufacturers, including Tony's Chocolonely, has dedicated itself to producing chocolate that is free of slave labor.

Consumption of chocolateEdit

The chocolate industry is growing gradually and the consumption figures for 5 of the 7 continents amounts already total $ 50 billion every year. [10Live In Europe by far most consumers of chocolate and other cocoa products with 45% of the world turnover. The country where most of the chocolate is eaten is Switzerland with 11.4 kg per person per year. It is followed by Great Britain and Belgium with 9.5 8.7 kilograms. Other countries with much chocolate consumption are GermanyDenmarkIrelandNorwayPolandand Austria . The United States complete this list with around 5.4 kilograms per person per year. [source?]

Chocolate in contemporary cultureEdit

Chocolate in books, film and musicEdit

Chocolate in the languageEdit

Known is the saying: I cannot make chocolate from. This means as much as ' this is so incoherent, incomprehensible or strange I can do nothing with it '.

FestivalsEdit

  • In the Italian city of Perugia (Umbria) is annually since 1993 the European chocolate chocolate festival held.
  • Since 2002, will find in Zutphen every year on the third Sunday of september a chocolate festival in the inner city. Also in Hattem is a chocolate festival every two years.
  • In Bruges finds since 2006 the chocolate festival Choco-Laté place.

MuseumsEdit

  • Barcelona - Xocolat museum
  • Biarritz - Musée du Chocolat, part of the local chocolate factory Haines. Particular the chocolate sculptures of chocolate maker Serge Couzigou.
  • In Bruges -Bruges is the chocolate museum Choco-Story, set in an old wine tavern from about 1480.
  • Brussels -In Brussels, the Museum of cocoa and chocolate located.
  • Erezée -To Briscol in Erezée is the chocolate museum of Chocolaterie Defroidmont.
  • Eupen -Eupen is "chocolate country", was established in 1994 by the local chocolate factory Jacques. It is an exhibition on cocoa, and chocolate with demonstrations of the working procedures, and promotion for the products of the factory.
  • Cologne -In Cologne is in 1993 a chocolate museum opened. It attracts about 500,000 visitors each year.
  • Lugano is Lugano -In the chocolate museum established from the Alprose Swiss chocolate factory.
  • Vienna -In Vienna is the Erstes Wiener Schokolade-Museum established, founded by the company Heindl.
  • Halle/Saale In Halle, near Leipzig, in the former GDR, is an instructive museum located in the factory of the halloren. Especially the contrast between the chocolate products from the West and the then East Germany are clearly presented.

Chocolate and wineEdit

Chocolate dropped into the classical gastronomy is not easy due to accompany wine . Exceptions to this were for example Banyuls and ice wine. It was especially the bitters from the cocoa bean that went well together not with mostly drier wine. Chocolate is also usually sweetened, whereby they in terms of taste sensation is stronger contrast with wine. The Ghanaian cocoa bean contains less of these bitters. Especially chocolate of this produced would now also can be combined with other types of wine. [11]

Deteriorating conditionsEdit

Recent developments in the economy and the increasing demand for cocoa in combination with the deteriorating environmental conditions, it is becoming harder to to chocolate to come. This will cause the price to rise significantly in the near future and it may be possible to be a luxury article again, there it was a luxury item in the past

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