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Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab 60% and Haryana 40% . As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government of India and is not part of either state. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and was known internationally for its architecture and urban design.[5] The master plan of the city was prepared by Le Corbusier, transformed from an earlier plan by the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, however, is designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Pierre JeanneretJane Drew and Maxwell Fry.

The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country.[6] The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study,[7] and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.[8]The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city.[9]

ContentsEdit

 [hide*1 History

History[edit]Edit

After the Partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan. The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[10] The name Chandigarh, meaning "the Fort of Chandi", is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula.[11]

Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents, what Le Corbusier called, the 'Second Machine Age'.[12] However, two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made; their execution, however, was never fully accomplished after starting out in 1956.[13]

On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current state of Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus made into a union territory to serve as capital of both states.[14]

Geography and climate[edit]Edit

[1][2]Sukhna Lake

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44.5 sq mi or 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30.74°N 76.79°E.[15] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

Chandigarh
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
  33163   39205   302510   93216   283520   1453622   2803121   3083020   1333019   222914   9248   22194
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

The surrounding districts are MohaliPatiala and Roopnagar in Punjab, Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.

Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over theMediterranean Sea. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himanchal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.

Average temperature[edit]Edit

  • Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April). Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C.
  • Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
  • Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to a maximum of 44nbsp;°C. Temperatures generally remain between 30 °C to 42 °C .
  • Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
  • Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hail-storms.The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius.
[hide]Climate data for Chandigarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.4

(61.5)

19.1

(66.4)

26.5

(79.7)

33.5

(92.3)

37.4

(99.3)

38.3

(100.9)

33.0

(91.4)

32.8

(91)

29.1

(84.4)

28.8

(83.8)

23.9

(75)

19.1

(66.4)

28.16

(82.68)

Average low °C (°F) 3.9

(39)

5.4

(41.7)

10.4

(50.7)

14.9

(58.8)

22.2

(72)

26.9

(80.4)

24.0

(75.2)

22.3

(72.1)

20.8

(69.4)

16.0

(60.8)

9.5

(49.1)

4.7

(40.5)

15.08

(59.14)

Rainfall mm (inches) 46.6

(1.835)

33.9

(1.335)

29.3

(1.154)

11.3

(0.445)

24.2

(0.953)

112.6

(4.433)

276.3

(10.878)

282.8

(11.134)

179.0

(7.047)

41.6

(1.638)

6.7

(0.264)

18.9

(0.744)

1,063.2

(41.86)

Avg. rainy days 3.8 3.9 2.6 2.4 2.5 7.1 12.9 13.3 6.1 1.9 1.3 1.9 59.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[16]

[3]==Environment[edit]==

[4][5]Shanti Kunj Gardens

Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations. Ashokacassiamulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species. Deersambarsbarking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose GardenRock Garden, Terrace Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.

Demographics[edit]Edit

As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 960,787 with metro population of 1,025,682,[2] making for a density of about 9258 (7900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre.[18][19] Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 829 females for every 1,000 males[2] –which is the lowest in the country,[citation needed] up from 777 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.[2] 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.[2]

Places to Visit[edit]Edit

Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:[20]

Economy[edit]Edit

[6][7]Legislative Assembly by Le Corbusier[8][9]Punjab and Haryana High Courtby Le Corbusier

The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a “Pensioner's Paradise”. Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of [10] 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[21] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.

Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like QuarkInfosysDellIBMTechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 1st in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations".[22]

Education[edit]Edit

See also: List of educational institutions in Chandigarh[11][12]Gandhi Bhavan built by Pierre Jeanneret for Panjab University

There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. Other Institutions are Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hosp, Punjab Engineering College Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, DAV College, MCM DAV College for Wemen, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College-26, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Poltechnical College, Govt Homescience College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management etc. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.[23]

According to Chandgiarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 107 government schools in Chandigarh.[24]

Transport[edit]Edit

[13][14]Chandigarh Airport from inside

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[25] Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.

The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.[26] CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala — Kalka — Shimla — Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh — Leh).

Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to major Indian cities like DelhiMumbaiKolkata,VisakhapatnamJaipurLucknowBhopalIndoreTrivandrum and Amritsar. It also links other cities like AmbalaKollamPanipat and Kalka.

Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including New Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur and Srinagar. A new international terminal is under construction.Flights are available to Kullu-Manali also with Himalayan Bulls.

The Chandigarh Metro Rail is expected to start working by 2018 along with the proposed Kolkata Metro and Indore Metro.

Entertainment[edit]Edit

Sports[edit]Edit

Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams like Kings XI Punjab in The Indian Premier League (IPL).

Gardens[edit]Edit

It also has two gardens of international repute – the Rock Garden of Chandigarh in sector 1 and the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.

Communications[edit]Edit

If we talk about internet connectivity it is most important to know ISP companies in chandigarh. internet plays an important role in entertaining us. Available internet providers are; Airtel Broadband, Connect Broadband, Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL or USB modem stick, Airtel 4G wifi. Same ISPs are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity).

Notable people from Chandigarh[edit]Edit

Gallery[edit]Edit

  • [21]

    Chandigarh Airport old terminal

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