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The Olympic Summer Games of the Xxixth Olympiad were held in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China. It was the 26th Edition of the summer games that were organized by the International Olympic Committee . China was the 22nd country that was allowed to organize Olympic Games . The games lasted from 8 to 24 August 2008. There were 204 11.208 athletes from different countries. There were 302 events in 28 sports. Three countries competed at these games and Brunei as the only IOC member did not qualify. Subsequently in Beijing from 6 to 17 september the Paralympics held.

ContentEdit

[hide]*1 General

General[Edit]Edit

Allocation[Edit]Edit

[1]

[2]2008 Olympic Games countdown clock on 20 February 2006[3][4]Protest during the torch parade in Paris[5][6]The five fuwa-mascots

Beijing was elected as the host city of this play on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC session in Moscow by defeating TorontoParisIstanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (BangkokCairoHavanaKuala Lumpur , and Seville) submitted bids in 2000, those rejected by the IOC as an organization, city. After the first round of voting, Beijing had a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round Beijing was supported by an absolute majority of the voters, eliminating the need for these rounds was unnecessary.

Members of the IOC wanted their voice does not reveal, but news reports speculated that broad international support has led to selection of China, especially from developing countries. The size of China, the increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy over her loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney were also points in the decision. Beijing eight years earlier went through to the last round of voting, that it lost to Sydney.

Controversy[Edit]Edit

The allocation of the games to China is controversial in some circles because of the political situation and human rights violations. Amnesty International reported in July 2008, both in april 2007 as that in the run-up to the games the situation for persons sentenced to death and foreign journalists in China has improved, while the repression against journalists and activists own right has increased. [1[2]

A survey conducted by Playfair 2008[3], an organization of trade unions and activist groups, it turns out that there also would be wrong in the production of a lot of stuff on the occasion of the Beijing Games are made, such as caps, bags and pens. In the Chinese factories would prevent child labour and not yet half of the minimum wage are paid. The Organizing Committee of the games has announced to investigate the companies mentioned. [4]

In March 2008 it was announced that the Dutch Parliament would hold a hearing on the relationship between the Play and the human rights situation in China. [5The fourth Balkenende Cabinet decided to the highest members Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende and State Secretary Jet Bussemaker of sports to send the official opening of the Olympic Games. Also Crown Prince and IOC member Willem-Alexander and Princess Máxima decided to attend the 2008 Olympic Games.

On behalf of the IOC gave Hein Verbruggen that the news coverage about the human rights situation in China has been covered and reported: "we know from experience that the press in the week before the games, if there is not already a workout, subjects are looking for. And if you can't talk about unfinished buildings, the well-known themes such as human rights, the environment and closed websites over. [6]

Cost[Edit]Edit

On March 6, 2009 the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", which was about $ 15 billion[citation needed]. And the extra proceeds from the Olympic Games would exceed the original target of $ 16 billion[citation needed].However, In other sources estimated that about $ 40 billion[source? ]was spent on the games.

The centerpiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, the main stadium of the play that was designed by the architectural firm Herzog & de Meuron.It was nicknamed "the bird's nest" because it had a nest-like skeleton. In the stadium were both the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics competitions. The construction of the stadium began on 24 december 2003.

Torchlight[Edit]Edit

The relay with the Olympic torch that was brought from Athens to Beijing, led by the Himalaya. The torch by a group of 80 specially trained mountaineers also to the top of theMount Everest brought. In cities like London and Paris , the torch relay by some protesters as an opportunity to protest against it, in their eyes, little democratic content of the country and the human rights violations.

Mascot[Edit]Edit

The were the five fuwa mascots of these games. They are created by Han Meilin and were unveiled on 11 november 2005 , 1000 days before the opening of the games. Their names are Beibei, Jingjing, Huanhuan, Yingying and Nini, pronounce out loud they form together the meaning Beijing huanying ni (Beijing welcomes you).

Opening Ceremony[Edit]Edit

The opening ceremony took place on August 8, 2008 (the special day: 8/8/8) in the bird's nest. The event lasted just over four hours and there were 60.207 tickets sold for the opening. The cost of the event amounted to roughly  60 million (= approximately 650.136.000 yuan). For comparison, the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Games in London took 27 million pounds (= approximately 34 million  ). The Director of the spectacular opening ceremony was in the hands of the Chinese film director Zhang Yimou.

At the ceremony were the four most important Chinese inventions exemplified in a sound-and-light game with custom choreography, namely the papergunpowder, the printing press and the compass. After the performance of Chinese culture were allowed to 204 countries with their flag and their delegation entered the stadium. Actually there would be 205 countries make their appearance but Brunei was excluded from participation because the 2 participants were not registered. After all countries proposed were IOC President Jacques Rogge held and their speech Chinese president Hu Jintao .

The Olympic flag was then paraded. The former Chinese gymnastics champion Li Ning was given the honor to the flame to ignite. Hereby he floated in spectacular fashion to a cable already running with his torch along the stadium Vault up and kindled the torch on top of the Giants Stadium. Then followed a final firework of unprecedented magnitude from the stadium and across the city. [7]

Never before have there been so many heads of State, heads of Government and other dignitaries to the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games drawn. In total there were a record number of more than 80 heads of State from around the world attended the Olympics 2008. [8]

[7]

See also the list of flag bearers at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the flag carriers per country and the order of entry by country.

Closing Ceremony[Edit]Edit

The closing ceremony took place on 24 August 2008. The Director was again in the hands of the Chinese film director Zhang Yimou. In his concluding speech did the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge, the Belgian the games as truly exceptional Games[9(truly exceptional play)[10.

At the closing ceremony were the flags of all participating countries paraded one last time. Also if all athletes enter the stadium. The medals for the marathon at the men were the last of these games and were awarded during the ceremony. The speeches were held and then the flame extinguished. It was a reference to the departure of the athletes with the aircraft including flight schedule was depicted. The Greeks and the British flag were hoisted at the Olympic flag ironed. This was transferred to Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, the next host city of the summer games. It also gave a taste for those games in 2012, which, inter alia, the footballer David Beckham had a role in. Then sang Plácido Domingo and Chinese soprano Song Zuying the duet "The Flame of Love", that was written specially for the games. A living torch and much Fireworks locks off the ceremony.

Highlights[Edit]Edit

[8][9]Swimmer Michael Phelps, the King of the games with eight golds*The American swimmer Michael Phelps WINS eight gold medals at these games. This he surpasses another swimming legend, his compatriot Mark Spitz who won seven Munich 1972 .

  • Michael Phelps is the most successful Olympian ever. His total number of gold medals comes along with that of Athens 2004 on 14. He goes on the list of multiple medal winners at the 2008 Summer Olympics gymnast Larissa Latynina, sprinter-long jumper Carl LewisPaavo Nurmi runner and swimmer Mark Spitz, who passed on nine golds are. Phelps won bronze In Athens also 2 more times, so that its total number of medals at 16 comes. Only Latynina won a greater number of medals; 18 in total. Phelps Announces by wanting to go to the London Games.
  • The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt shakes in the final of the 100 m with ease off the competition and runs a new world record of 9,69. It is the first gold medal for Jamaica on the sprint in the Olympic history. It is also the first time in an Olympic final six sprinters under 10 seconds remain. Churandy Martina of the Dutch Antilles is fourth in the final. Also on the 200 m , clocking a world record he runs Bolt 19.30, 0.02 faster than the old record of Michael Johnson of Atlanta 1996.
  • Track cyclist Chris Hoy wins three gold medals, in the sprint, keirin and the team sprint.

Sports[Edit]Edit

Sports Facilities[Edit]Edit

[10][11]The Beijing National Stadium[12][13]Sports venues in Beijing

[14]

See competition venues of the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

In May 2007 with the construction of all 31 Beijing-based accommodations started. The Chinese Government also invested in the renovation and construction of six venues outside Beijing and 59 training centres. The largest architectural pieces that were built for the games were the Beijing National StadiumBeijing National Indoor StadiumBeijing National Aquatics CenterOlympic Green Convention CenterOlympic Green , and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by $ 2.1 billion in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from companies looking for the property rights after the 2008 Summer Olympics. Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in QinhuangdaoShanghaiShenyang and Tianjin, sailing in Qingdao, and because the "uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone in Beijing", were the equestrian events held in Hong Kong .

Olympic sports[Edit]Edit

During these games was there working out in 302 medal events in 28 sports.

Athletics Badminton Basketball Boxing Archery Weightlifting Gymnastics Handball

Hockey Baseball Judo Canoeing Modern pentathlon Equestrian Rowing Screens

Shooting Sports Softball Taekwondo Table tennis Tennis Triathlon Football Volleyball

Cycling Wrestling Sailing Swimming Sports Course-/Openwaterzwemmen   diving  synchronized swimming  Water polo

Calendar[Edit]Edit

The table below presents the program of the games per day. A blue box indicates that that day matches had place, but that there was no medals were to be won. A yellow box indicates that there is to win medals fell that day and the number represents the number of finals. [11]

Opening Ceremony Matches Matches with medals Closing Ceremony
August 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Until.
Ceremonies
Athletics 2 4 6 6 5 3 6 7 7 1 47
Badminton 1 2 2 5
Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing 5 6 11
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Gymnastics 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 18
Handball 1 1 2
Hockey 1 1 2
Baseball 1 1
Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Canoeing 2 2 6 6 16
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Rowing 7 7 14
Screens 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Shooting 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 15
Softball 1 1
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
Tennis 2 2 4
Triathlon 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Volleyball 1 1 1 1 4
Cycling 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 18
Wrestling 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 18
Sailing 2 1 2 2 2 2 11
Swimming Sports
Course-/Openwaterzwemmen 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Synchronized Swimming 1 1 2
Water polo 1 1 2
Total - - - 7 14 13 19 17 17 16 30 34 18 20 11 23 20 31 12 302

Mutations[Edit]Edit

Sports New Gone (compared to vintage) Changes/Comments
Athletics 3000 m steeple (v) Now 47 items
Cycling BMX (m)

BMX (f)

Course time trial (m)

Course time trial (v)

Shooting Sports Running disk (m)

Double trap (v)

Now 15 items
Swimming Open water swimming (m)

Open water swimming (v)

Now 34 items
5 4 0

Participating countries[Edit]Edit

[15][16]Participating countries. Blue: debuting country in the summer games. Green: have previously taken part in the summer games.

To the games did 204 National Olympic committees (NOCs) with it. Even though it is not correct, often with a country a NOC is vindicated. In 2008 there were 205[12Nocs affiliated to the IOC. Only Brunei has at the last time of entry remember[13]. The number of participating "countries participated in comparison with the previous edition.

Since the previous games is the political situation changed in a number of countries which led to the formation of new Nocs. So are the Marshall Islands since February 2006, members of the IOC. [14Tuvalu is since 2007 member of the Olympic family. [15In 2006 Montenegro left the Union with Serbia. In 2004 they took part as Serbia-Montenegrotogether yet. Both countries are now separately with it. Serbia took Serbia-Montenegro's about the license and the NOC of Montenegro was recognised in 2007. [15]

In February 2008 Kosovo unilaterally announced to the independence of Serbia. This new Republic shall not take part in the games because the country still had to be settled and all kinds of things by many countries and by many international sports federations has not yet been recognized. [16]

North Korea and South Korea have considered to send a joint team to the games, but this cancelled. [17[18In the past sometimes names both countries jointly participated in the opening ceremony, but they did never along with one team. In early 2006 they discussed this with the president of the IOC. [19in early 2007, the preparations were further developed. [18South Korea wanted to select athletes based on performance, while North Korea like the same number of athletes from both countries wanted to select. [20The Nocs did not come to agreement, but indicated to talk in the future. [21]

Brunei was the only IOC member that not participated. The only other independent countries that took part were not Vatican City Kosovo and, for the simple reason that they haven't had a private Committee.

The 204 participating entities are divided into three groups:

-192 of the 195 independent countries
Palestine
-11 territories that are politically dependent on China, the NetherlandsNew ZealandUnited Kingdom and the United States.

The list below gives an overview of all participating countries. The name of the country links to the specific Olympic page of that country.

[17] Afghanistan [18] Albania [19] Algeria [20] U.s. Virgin Islands [21] American Samoa [22] Andorra [23] Angola [24] Antigua and Barbuda [25] Argentina [26] Armenia [27] Aruba [28] Australia [29] Azerbaijan [30] Bahamas [31] Bahrain [32] Bangladesh [33] Barbados [34] Belgium [35] Belize [36] Benin [37] Bermuda [38] Bhutan [39] Bolivia [40] Bosnia and Herzegovina [41] Botswana [42] Brazil [43] British Virgin Islands [44] Bulgaria [45] Burkina Faso [46] Burundi [47] Cambodia [48] Canada [49] Central African Republic [50] Chile [51] China [52] Chinese Taipei [53] Colombia [54] Comoros [55] Congo-Brazzaville [56] Democratic Republic Of The Congo [57] Cook Islands [58] Costa Rica [59] Cuba [60] Cyprus [61] Denmark [62] Djibouti [63] Dominica [64] Dominican Republic [65] Germany [66] Ecuador [67] Egypt

[68] El Salvador [69] Equatorial Guinea [70] Eritrea [71] Estonia [72] Ethiopia [73] Fiji [74] Philippines [75] Finland [76] France [77] Gabon [78] Gambia [79] Georgia [80] Ghana [81] Grenada [82] Greece [83] Great Britain [84] Guam [85] Guatemala [86] Guinea [87] Guinea-Bissau [88] Guyana [89] Haiti [90] Honduras [91] Hungary [92] Hong Kong [93] Ireland [94] Iceland [95] India [96] Indonesia [97] Iraq [98] Iran [99] Israel [100] Italy [101] Ivory Coast [102] Jamaica [103] Japan [104] Yemen [105] Jordan [106] Cayman Islands [107] Cape Verde [108] Cameroon [109] Kazakhstan [110] Kenya [111] Kyrgyzstan [112] Kiribati [113] Kuwait [114] Croatia [115] Laos [116] Lesotho [117] Latvia [118] Lebanon

[119] Liberia [120] Libya [121] Liechtenstein [122] Lithuania [123] Luxembourg [124] Macedonia [125] Madagascar [126] Malawi [127] Maldives [128] Malaysia [129] Mali [130] Malta [131] Marshall Islands [132] Morocco [133] Mauritania [134] Mauritius [135] Mexico [136] Micronesia [137] Moldova [138] Monaco [139] Mongolia [140] Montenegro [141] Mozambique [142] Myanmar [143] Namibia [144] Nauru [145] Netherlands [146] Netherlands Antilles [147] Nepal [148] Nicaragua [149] New Zealand [150] Niger [151] Nigeria [152] North Korea [153] Norway [154] Uganda [155] Ukraine [156] Uzbekistan [157] Oman [158] Austria [159] East Timor [160] Pakistan [161] Palau [162] Palestine [163] Panama [164] Papua New Guinea [165] Paraguay [166] Peru [167] Poland [168] Portugal [169] Puerto Rico

[170] Qatar [171] Romania [172] Russia [173] Rwanda [174] Saint Kitts and Nevis [175] Saint Lucia [176] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [177] Solomon Islands [178] Samoa [179] San Marino [180] São Tomé and Príncipe [181] Saudi Arabia [182] Senegal [183] Serbia [184] Seychelles [185] Sierra Leone [186] Singapore [187] Slovenia [188] Slovakia [189] Sudan [190] Somalia [191] Spain [192] Sri Lanka [193] Suriname [194] Swaziland [195] Syria [196] Tajikistan [197] Tanzania [198] Thailand [199] Togo [200] Tonga [201] Trinidad and Tobago [202] Chad [203] Czech Republic [204] Tunisia [205] Turkey [206] Turkmenistan [207] Tuvalu [208] Uruguay [209] Vanuatu [210] Venezuela [211] United Arab Emirates [212] United States [213] Viet Nam [214] Belarus [215] Zambia [216] Zimbabwe [217] South Africa [218] South-Korea [219] Sweden [220] Switzerland

Aruban performance[Edit]Edit

[221]

See Aruba at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

Aruba took part with two athletes. Fiderd Vis the judoka lost in the first round. The course swimmer Jan Rahaman swam in the 100 m freestyle in the heats the 53rd time of the 64 participants.

Belgian performance[Edit]Edit

[222]

See Belgium at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

Belgium had little success in Beijing. A number of athletes was close to the stage, but it just fails. The games were only on the penultimate day tightly closed with gold for high jumper Tia Hellebaut and silver in the 4 x 100 metres in the women 's.

Minister Bert Anciaux of the Belgians in Beijing called the performance "fantastic and the max ', but IOC President Jacques Rogge is more critical. It finds that Belgium can be done better. "Once we have between ten and fifteen medals can get hold of". [22]

Medals
Sports Olympian Discipline Medal
Athletics Tia Hellebaut High jump (v) [223]
Athletics Olivia Borlée

Kim Gevaert Hanna Mariën Élodie Ouédraogo

4 x 100 m (v) [224]

Dutch performance[Edit]Edit

[225]

See Netherlands at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

[226]

See also list of Dutch participants in the summer games of 2008

Netherlands won at these games 16 medals including seven golds. A large number of Favorites disappointed, on the other hand were surprising champions and medal winners. Only in 2000 was more frequently achieved gold in Sydney. The NOC * NSF intended by the top 10 position in the Medal tally was not met. Netherlands finished in 12th place. What stood out is that the gold medals were won by other athletes or teams each time. So came in Sydney eight gold medals in three athletes go.

Medals
Sports Olympian (s) Discipline Medal
Hockey Olympic team women [227]
Equestrian Anky van Grunsven Dressage [228]
Rowing Marit van Eupen

Kirsten van der Kolk

light double sculls (v) [229]
Water polo Olympic team women [230]
Cycling Marianne Vos points race (f) [231]
Swimming Ranomi Kromowidjojo

Marleen Veldhuis Inge Dekker Femke Heemskerk Hinkelien Schreuder * Manon van Rooijen *

4 x 100 m free (v) [232]
Maarten van der Weijden 10 km open water (m) [233]
Judo Deborah Gravenstijn 57 kg (f) [234]
Equestrian Imke Bartels

Hans Peter Minderhoud Anky van Grunsven

dressage team [235]
Rowing team Holland Eight eight (v) [236]
Sailing Lobke Berkhout

San

470-class (v)

[237]
Mandy Mulder

Annemieke Bes Merel Witteveen

yngling-class (v)

[238]
Judo Ruben Houkes up to 60 kg (m) [239]
Brandon Walker 63 kg (f) [240]
Edith Bosch up to 70 kg (f) [241]
Henk Grol up to 100 kg (m) [242]
  •  Took part in the qualifier and was therefore also a medal

Dutch-Antillian performance[Edit]Edit

[243]

See Netherlands Antilles at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

On behalf of the Netherlands Antilles names three athletes share in three sports. The shooter Philip Elhage was on the 10 metre air pistol 46th with 566 points (93-99-93-93-94-94). In the swimming course swimmertook Rodion davelaar part in the 50 m freestyle where he swam in the heats the 57th time (24.21). In the Athletics left Churandy Martina is stirring. In the 100 metres and 200 metres sprint he improved one national record after another. He was fourth in the 100 m and silver in the 200 m he seemed even to walk to. After completion of his race, he was disqualified, because he had come in the bend just outside his job. [23]

Surinamese performance[Edit]Edit

[244]

See Suriname at the 2008 Summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

On behalf of Suriname names four Olympians share in two sports. In the Athletics names Kirsten Nieuwendam and Jurgen Themen part and in the swimming and the course names swimmers Chinyere Pigot Gordon Touw Ngie Taleb part. The athletes ended up on their parts in the rear. Though ran a new national record in the 200 m Nieuwendam.

Medal Tally[Edit]Edit

[245]

See 2008 Summer Olympics medal table for the main article on this topic.

On 302 parts were awarded medals. The IOC officially set yet, but no final medal rankings on medal table for information. In the standings is first looked at the number of gold medals, then the silver medals and finally the bronze medals.

China finished first in the final medal rankings, with a total of 51 gold medals, the largest number since the Soviet Union in 1988 who won 55. China took the lead from the United States that led the standings since 1996. The Americans won the largest number of medals with 110 pieces. This they had since Los Angeles 1984 no longer met.

A record number of 86 countries managed to win at least one medal. Fifty-five countries knew to win at least one gold medal. In the following table, the top 10 plus Belgium and Netherlands. The host country has a blue background. The largest number of medals per category is vetgezet.

Place Country NOC [246]

Gold

[247]

Silver

[248] Bronze Total
1 [249]

China

CHN 51 21 28 100
2 [250]

United States

USA 36 38 36 110
3 [251]

Russia

RUS 23 21 28 72
4 [252]

Great Britain

GBR 19 13 15 47
5 [253]

Germany

GER 16 10 15 41
6 [254]

Australia

AUS 14 15 17 46
7 [255]

South-Korea

KOR 13 10 8 31
8 [256]

Japan

JPN 9 6 10 25
9 [257]

Italy

ITA 8 10 10 28
10 [258]

France

FRA 7 16 18 41
12 [259]

Netherlands

NED 7 5 4 16
46 [260]

Belgium

CALL 1 1 0 2

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