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The 18th century (by the Julian calendar) is the 18th period of 100 years, so consisting of the years 1701 to 1800. The 18th century belongs to the2nd millennium. In the political field, there have been huge shifts occurred, especially in the last decade. After the French Revolution of 1789 France has emerged as the most aggressive power: led by Napoleon Bonaparte, the war against RussiaAustria, the United KingdomPortugalNaples and theOttoman Empire. This strong expansion drift occurs at the end of a century that a loss of French power on the continent and in the colonies has given to see. The United Kingdom has developed into the strongest power in Europe, although this position is challenged now by France. Especially the size of the British colonial empire has increased (For Indies, Canada), despite the loss of the now independent United States. Evenalshet United KingdomAustria is one of the most prominent and dogged opponents of the revolutionary France; the country has played an important role over the past century in the battle for the European hegemony. The other major German land, Prussia, holds itself aloof from the European troubles. The country has by its strong internal structure over the past hundred years can working up to one of the most powerful powers. The Colossus in the East, Russia, has its limits further West and now plays for the first time in its history actually actually a role of meaning in European politics. These five countries-France, theUnited Kingdom, Austria, Prussia and Russia – determine largely the political face of Europe in the eighteenth century.

There are big losers in this century. In the 17th century Spain, still in the possession of a powerful army and of vast areas on the continent, is now a stunted country in a remote corner of Europe. Poland, at the beginning of the century is still a State of huge size, it is at the end of it (after 1795) disappeared and split up between Russia, Prussia and Austria. The hegemony of Sweden in the North since the disastrous wars of Charles XII completely nullified. The proud independence of the Republic of the seven Provinces has been lost: Netherlands is now under the Batavian Republicname a vassal state of France. The southern Netherlands are, after nearly a century Austrian rule, under French rule. In South-East Europe, the Ottoman Empire further losses have to accept; It hardly plays more of a role in the continental politics

In this century is going to develop a global economy with Europe as the Centre; This continent, especially the Northwest, is richer than any other part of the world as well. The numerous inventions and the developed technique, which their effect on Agriculture and industry not fog, poses many Europeans a greater grasp on to influence conditions in the past. At the end of the eighteenth century France Europe more than 180 million inhabitants, 70 million more than at the beginning. Most people live and work in the countryside, yet only London (900,000 inhabitants) and Paris (600,000 inhabitants) one can mention large cities; only 50 cities have more than 50,000 inhabitants.

Important events and developments[Edit]Edit

Europe
  • The Royal absolutism WINS everywhere site. The regional nobility will lose its dominant position in Exchange for a place in the Central Administration and in the daily entourage of the forest (Adelscompromis).
  • There is also a variant: the enlightened despot. This wants to father or mother of the people. He/she promotes arts and Sciences, and is committed to reliable legislation, case law and governance. Examples are:Frederick the great of Prussia and Catherine the great of Russia, Joseph II of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Ottoman Empire loses in Europe to power. Most administrative functions are exercised by Greeks.
  • Also the Russian-Turkish wars at the time of the Ottoman Empire Catherine the great push back slowly. The Russians draw their superiority in the Black Sea and on land up to the Danube. The Imperial Russian Navy operates even in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Janissaries, once the most feared Turkish army part, have become a hodgepodge of opportunists, which consist only of his on own gain. They picking more and more rights of the sultan los (the right to marry, financial rights, admission of born Muslims). The janissaries are hereditary dynastietjes that as a kind of minor nobility in Europe. They squeezing the local Christian farmers out mercilessly.
  • The Habsburg empire becomes the dominant power in South-Eastern Europe. The military frontier, Militärgrenze along the Croatian in the 16th century, the conquest of Turkish territory expanded to include the Slawonische Militärgrenze (1702), the Banater Militärgrenze (1742) and the Siebenbürger Militärgrenze (1764). In this belt is mostly Slavic professional soldiers who have to defend Europe against the Turks.
  • In the beginning of the Hannoveriaanse period in the United Kingdom are the Whigs the main political party in the Government. During this period, the Tories nearly extinct as political power. During the reign ofGeorge III changes this, he frees itself of the "Whig magnates" and creates a new Tory party . They consisted mostly of former moderate Whigs.

Economy
America
  • Century of the slave trade, especially from West Africa to America. The slaves are met to work on the sugar plantation in the Caribbean and on the cotton plantation in the South of North America. This is required because during and after the conquest of America the native Indians have been largely massacred or extinct by infectious diseases, and the remaining ones are too heavily weakened for the hard work on the plantations.
  • If the viceroyalties New Granada and Rio de la Plata are formed at the expense of territory of the Viceroyalty of PeruLima to lose interest and are Caracas and Buenos Aires major trading cities.
  • The American war of independence breaks out when the English settlers in America claim more influence on their own Board. This results in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence
  • Diamond is found In Brazil. Holland Gets the monopoly on the import and processing of Brazilian diamond.
Republic of the United Netherlands
Southern Netherlands
  • The Habsburg Netherlands in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) about Spanish in Austrian control. In the Austrian Netherlands is the Minister Plenipotentiary the highest representative of the Austrian Emperor after theGovernor. The Minister Plenipotentiary is the actual head of the Government in the southern Netherlands. The function of Governor is purely honorary, and is granted to members of the ruling House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
  • After 1713 makes Austrian rule a more open Jewish community. During this time there will be a large immigration of Ashkenazi Jews to the country. Emperor Joseph II gives Jews the right to trade, crafts to exercise and to own land. Finally, they also get the right to own cemeteries.
  • Beginning of the francization of Brussels. Administration and high bourgeoisie exclusively use of the French language.
  • From the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 until the French annexation in 1795 there is a province of West-Flanders, which is much further south than current and also now French-speaking areas.
  • Tensions arise In the 1980s by the rash innovativeness of Emperor Joseph II. But the Brabant revolution hangs in the Prussian intervention. Eventually, the Belgians "liberated" by the French revolutionary army.
Military
Colonies

[1][2]Bankruptcy of the WIC*The Dutch West India Company (WIC) stretches difficult its existence. They're going to end up bankrupt in 1791. The more successful United East India Company retains the monopoly on the eastern trade to the Batavian revolution.

  • The African slaves in Suriname who have managed to escape, with the help of the native population own villages found in the Amazon. From these settlements they guerrilla attacks on the plantations. This happens with so much success that the colonial Government in 1760 the first of a series of peace treaties closes with the Maroon tribes. That actually makes the Maroons until the first freed slaves on the American continent.
  • In the Dutch Cape Colony is successfully developed viticulture , for example on Stellenbos and on Constantia.
  • The Mughal Empire falls apart while the British influence in the Princely States increases.
Power Supply
  • In the second half of the century is going massively over Netherlands on potatoes as a staple food.
  • England goes to the tea.
  • Tobacco is used In widely. Smoked Gouda pipe or in the snorted in the snuff box.
  • The British naval doctor James Lind is the first that relates the symptoms of scurvy and eating citrus fruits. From now on, to prevent the disease used lemon juice, which the English Marines the nickname ' Limeys ' presents. To preserve the sauerkraut also goes well from now on board.
Religion
City and country
  • Between the larger cities creates a system of post roads. By stagecoaches and by postmen on horseback (the had been ridden) is transported to places where the public post his letters can come pick it up.
  • Three times a year-long wave of cattle plague through Europe. The disease is described in 1711 by the personal physician of the Pope Giovanni Lancisi that recommends, in order to kill all the cattle disease occur by strangulation, in order to prevent blood infection. While the Englishman Dodson and the Dutchman Kemper are working on a vaccine, is experimenting the Groninger boer Geert Reinders this in practice.The disease not only causes the downfall of many farms, but also high food prices in the cities.
  • Capability Brown is the main designer of the English landscape style.
  • On outdoor places does one decorate Orangerie , glass greenhouses where in winter the (sub) tropical plants in tubs only.
  • Wealthy citizens are distinguished by the setting up of rarities cabinets.
Fashion
  • To the prevailing fashion is called the wigs time this century. The extension tube wig shrinks and gets a more civilised impression. Later, the wig tied together with a bow from behind (tail wig).
  • Typical of this eighteenth-century period are the Tower tall Womens hairstyles, which are true works of art of human hair combined with horsehair and a construction of metal or pillows. The whole is decorated with pearls, jewels, feathers and pieces of fabric.
  • Women's fashion is characterized by slender bodies with a deep décolleté and a crinoline (crinoline). Characteristic is also the large production side, that is a "Europa" par excellence.
  • Wear long trousers, where workmen wear practical noblemen and patricians until the last quarter of the 18th century stockings, garters and knee trousers. Long trousers or "trousers" may not be worn at the French court. This one makes no exception for officers and soldiers. The underlying reason of this hofprotocol is the protection of the silk industry of Lyon that the stockings manufacture.
Art

[3][4]Chinoiseries in rococo style*The Lighting makes for a revival of Arts and Sciences in Europe and America.

Sciences

Important persons of the 18th century[Edit]Edit

[5][6]Enlightened thinker Voltaire*Johann Sebastian Bach

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